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ItemAn ethical defense of modern zoosGray, Jennifer Helen ( 2015)Zoos have been a largely uncontested part of the social fabric of cities for over 2,000 years. The nature and form of zoos have changed as sentiments and wealth of nations changed. While providing a place where animals and humans come into contact, zoos continue to hold and display animals in a relationship of vulnerability and dependence. Increasing threats to wild populations, public pressure to justify captivity and shifts in attitudes, have resulted in modern zoos adding research and conservation outcomes to their traditional benefits of recreation and entertainment. Yet a lingering question remains, can modern zoos be ethically justified? This thesis describes the workings of modern zoos and considers the core ethical challenges which face those who choose to hold and display animals in zoos, aquariums or sanctuaries. Using a number of normative ethical frameworks this thesis explores impacts of modern zoos. The impact of zoos include the costs to animals in terms of animal welfare, the loss of liberty and even impact on the value of animal life. On the positive side of the argument are the welfare and health outcomes for many of the animals held in zoos, increased attention and protection for their species in the wild and the enjoyment and education for the people who visit zoos. I conclude that zoos and aquariums are ethically defensible when they align conservation outcomes with the interests of individual animals and the interests of zoo operations. The impending extinction crisis requires large scale interventions which address human values and facilitate consideration of wildlife in decision making. Considering the long term relationship zoos have with animals, their extensive reach within communities and their reliance on animals to deliver positive experiences for people, it is appropriate that zoos pay back some of humanity’s debt to wildlife by making a meaningful contribution to wildlife conservation. Compassionate conservation demands that this contribution is not at the cost of individual suffering, rather that the interests of individual animals are aligned with the actions taken to save species.
ItemSBS independent: productive diversity and counter-memoryMALEL TREVISANUT, AMANDA ( 2013)This thesis explores SBS Independent (SBSi) (1994-2007) as a cultural institution characterised by productive diversity and counter-memory. It examines its cultural policy developments and uses a creative labour approach to demonstrate how the economic resource of productive diversity has conditioned new practices in management, production and distribution, in the Australian film and television industry. It also analyses content commissioned by SBSi and demonstrates how staff manoeuvred within this neo-liberal regime to generate new counter-memorial narrative representations, which continued to challenge white racial hegemony in Australia.
ItemThe policeman's eye: the photography of Paul FoelscheSMITH, TIMOTHY ( 2011)Inspector Paul Hinrich Matthias Foelsche was an enthusiastic amateur, who began to work in the field of photography shortly after his appointment as founding Inspector of Police for the Northern Territory in 1870. Foelsche's photographic practice spanned the last three decades of the nineteenth century, the period of focus of this thesis. His first tentative views of the temporary buildings of the Port Darwin settlement were made with a simple quarter-plate camera that used the latest reproducible method known as collodion or wet-plate photography, which instantly revolutionised the way exploration and surveying were visually recorded. Foelsche began using a whole-plate camera in 1873, and assumed the role of the colony's official photographer when asked to supply views of the newly established settlement for display at Melbourne's 1875 Intercolonial Exhibition. A subsequent government request for Aboriginal portraits for the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1878 introduced him to ethnographic photography, a purpose that became aligned with his wider interest in the prevailing scientific propositions surrounding the origins of humankind. Foelsche was occasionally invited to publish his findings on the North Australian Aborigines and, although he was not a scientist, he is more fittingly portrayed as a field collector, and an informant on the Northern Territory and its first inhabitants. By the early 1880s, Foelsche had separated his negatives into two distinct photographic purposes that were the raisons d' etre behind his photography - one that encompasses views of the developing urban landscape and scenery for international exhibitions, and a second undertaking that has become an important collection of ethnographic portraits of North Australian Aborigines. The combined significance of these intersecting projects constitutes his contribution to Australia's photography. One of the historiographic problems of the thesis has been to arrive at a just and fair assessment of Paul Foelsche, not only as a photographer, but also as a public servant. There is no doubt that Foelsche worked under equivocal and onerous circumstances, and within a very rudimentary legal system. The fact that over various parts of his career he was both the Inspector of Police and a magistrate certainly compromised his independence. His primary relationship with Aboriginal people was as a policeman, and his handling of frontier conflict remains a controversial aspect of the Northern Territory's early history. His role as a senior policeman presented opportunities for his photography, which would not have existed had he not occupied that position. Although there is no record of Foelsche directly participating in the violence, Foelsche's photographs of peaceful Aborigines sit uncomfortably with the sanctioned reprisals that took place against some of the Aboriginal peoples he was photographing. Foelsche, who was among the original Northern Territory pioneers, was first remembered as an intelligent and effective police official, however with the developing interest in frontier history in recent years he has been increasingly associated with the region's record of frontier conflict. His contributions with a camera and as a collector by comparison, have been largely overlooked. While his scientific collecting is deserving of attention, this thesis focuses on the figure of Foelsche as a photographer. Beyond its inherent geographic and ethnographic value, I will argue that his entire photographic opus presents a unique record of British colonisation of Australia's Northern Territory. The technical and creative quality of Foelsche's work has been underestimated and this thesis argues a place for him amongst the foremost Australian colonial photographers.
ItemA viable abortion: emotional intelligibilities of choice in contemporary Australia, 1969-2008Millar, Erica Rose ( 2013)This thesis examines representations and registers of abortion speech in Australia from 1969-2008. While ‘choice’ was exclusive to early pro-abortion campaigns it has, over time, achieved hegemonic status in both pro-choice and anti-abortion utterances. This thesis argues that the centrality of choice to all abortion discourse has not liberated women from compulsory motherhood. Rather, by virtue of the emotions that attach to choice, it has recuperated aborting women to the very maternal identity that deems abortion to be an illegitimate choice for pregnant women. Choice and emotion work together to (re)produce aborting women as deviant subjects.