Surgery (St Vincent's) - Research Publications

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    Metastatic giant cell tumour of bone: a narrative review of management options and approaches
    Xu, R ; Choong, PFM (WILEY, 2022-02-10)
    Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive bone neoplasm with a rare tendency to metastasise, most commonly to the lungs. The management of metastatic GCTB (metGCTB) is controversial due to its unpredictable behaviour. Asymptomatic patients should be monitored radiologically and undergo treatment only when disease progression occurs. Surgery is recommended for resectable metGCTB. Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody which inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, is recommended for unresectable metGCTB with evidence from phase II trials demonstrating its safety and efficacy. Relapse after denosumab withdrawal may occur and prolonged treatment may be associated with serious adverse events, thus further research is warranted to inform a maintenance regimen with reduced dosing and frequency. Combined denosumab and bisphosphonate therapy has the potential to achieve sustained disease control or remission in unresectable metGCTB without requiring long-term treatment and should be evaluated in prospective trials. Various novel agents have demonstrated in vitro and anecdotal efficacy and warrant further evaluation.
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    Patient and clinician characteristics and preferences for increasing participation in placebo surgery trials: a scoping review of attributes to inform a discrete choice experiment
    Hinwood, M ; Wall, L ; Lang, D ; Balogh, ZJ ; Smith, A ; Dowsey, M ; Clarke, P ; Choong, P ; Bunzli, S ; Paolucci, F (BMC, 2022-04-12)
    BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic surgeries include some of the highest volume surgical interventions globally; however, studies have shown that a significant proportion of patients report no clinically meaningful improvement in pain or function after certain procedures. As a result, there is increasing interest in conducting randomised placebo-controlled trials in orthopaedic surgery. However, these frequently fail to reach recruitment targets suggesting a need to improve trial design to encourage participation. The objective of this study was to systematically scope the available evidence on patient and clinician values and preferences which may influence the decision to participate in placebo surgery trial. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted via a literature search in the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and EconLit databases as of 19 July 2021, for studies of any design (except commentaries or opinion pieces) based on two key concepts: patient and clinician characteristics, values and preferences, and placebo surgery trials. RESULTS: Of 3424 initial articles, we retained 18 eligible studies. Characteristics, preferences, values, and attitudes of patients (including levels of pain/function, risk/benefit perception, and altruism) and of clinicians (including concerns regarding patient deception associated with placebo, and experience/training in research) influenced their decisions to participate in placebo-controlled trials. Furthermore, some aspects of trial design, including randomisation procedures, availability of the procedure outside of the trial, and the information and consent procedures used, also influenced decisions to participate. CONCLUSION: Participant recruitment is a significant challenge in placebo surgery trials, and individual decisions to participate appear to be sensitive to preferences around treatment. Understanding and quantifying the role patient and clinician preferences may play in surgical trials may contribute to the optimisation of the design and implementation of clinical trials in surgery.
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    Flexible mechanical metamaterials enabling soft tactile sensors with multiple sensitivities at multiple force sensing ranges
    Mohammadi, A ; Tan, Y ; Choong, P ; Oetomo, D (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2021-12-16)
    The majority of existing tactile sensors are designed to measure a particular range of force with a fixed sensitivity. However, some applications require tactile sensors with multiple task-relevant sensitivities at multiple ranges of force sensing. Inspired by the human tactile sensing capability, this paper proposes a novel soft tactile sensor based on mechanical metamaterials which exhibits multiple sensitivity regimes due to the step-by-step locking behaviour of its heterogenous multi-layered structure. By tuning the geometrical design parameters of the collapsible layers, each layer experiences locking behaviour under different ranges of force which provides different sensitivity of the sensor at different force magnitude. The integration of a magnetic-based transduction method with the proposed structure results in high design degrees of freedom for realising the desired contact force sensitivities and corresponding force sensing ranges. A systematic design procedure is proposed to select appropriate design parameters to produce the desired characteristics. Two example designs of the sensor structure were fabricated using widely available benchtop 3D printers and tested for their performance. The results showed the capability of the sensor in providing the desired characteristics in terms of sensitivity and force range and being realised in different shapes, sizes and number of layers in a single structure. The proposed multi-sensitivity soft tactile sensor has a great potential to be used in a wide variety of applications where different sensitivities of force measurement is required at different ranges of force magnitudes, from robotic manipulation and human-machine interaction to biomedical engineering and health-monitoring.
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    Systems-Level Change to Alleviate Barriers to Cancer Clinical Trial Access for Adolescents and Young Adults in Australia
    Ellis, JA ; Malalasekera, VS ; Allan, C ; Choong, PF ; Hansford, JR ; Hehir, R ; Morello, N ; O'Callaghan, S ; Orme, L ; Phillipson, N ; Rosenthal, MA ; Sawyer, S ; Strong, R ; Super, L ; Watt, A ; Williams, C ; Woollett, A ; Robertson, A ; Lewin, J (MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2021-07-22)
    Purpose: International data demonstrate association between clinical trial participation and reduced cancer mortality. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) have low clinical trial enrollment rates. We established a program to understand local barriers and develop targeted solutions that lead to greater AYA clinical trial participation. Methods: A steering committee (SC) with expertise in adult and pediatric oncology, research ethics, and consumer representation was formed. The SC mapped barriers related to AYA trial access and established working groups (WGs) around three themes. Results: The Regulatory Awareness WG identified a lack of understanding of processes that support protocol approval for clinical trials across the AYA age range. A guideline to raise awareness was developed. The Access WG identified challenges for young adults (18-25 years) to access a pediatric hospital to enroll in a pediatric trial. A procedure was developed to streamline applications for access. The first six applications using this procedure have been successful. The Availability WG identified lack of pediatric-adult oncology reciprocal relationships as a barrier to awareness of open trials, and future collaboration. An AYA Craft Group Framework was established to grow relationships within tumor streams across institutions; two craft groups are now operating locally. An additional achievement was a successful request to the Therapeutic Goods Administration for Australian adoption of the Food and Drug Administration Guidance on Considerations for the Inclusion of Adolescent Patients in Adult Oncology Clinical Trials. Conclusion: This multipronged approach to improving AYA clinical trial access has relevance for other health environments. Our knowledge products are available as an online toolkit.
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    Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Risk of Complications After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Clinical Trial
    Dowsey, MM ; Brown, WA ; Cochrane, A ; Burton, PR ; Liew, D ; Choong, PF (American Medical Association, 2022-04-14)
    Importance: People with severe obesity who undergo a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for osteoarthritis (OA) are at higher risk of short-term and long-term complications compared with people with reference (<30) body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). It is not known whether weight loss before TKA modifies this risk. Objective: To determine whether outcomes are improved by undergoing bariatric surgery before TKA in people with BMI greater than or equal to 35 and end-stage OA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial was conducted between May 2012 and June 2020 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months after TKA. TKA was performed at a tertiary referral university-affiliated public hospital, and bariatric surgery was performed at a private hospital facility and a university-affiliated private practice. Data analysis was performed from February to July 2021. Interventions: Bariatric surgery compared with usual weight management advice (treatment as usual [TAU]) in people scheduled for TKA. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was complications of TKA measured by a composite of death from any cause, perioperative or postoperative complications resulting in a discharge delay, unplanned procedure, or readmission for at least 12 months after TKA. Secondary outcomes included hospital bed day utilization, anthropomorphic measures, and patient-reported outcomes. Results: Eighty-two patients waiting for TKA were randomized to undergo bariatric surgery (41 patients) or TAU (41 patients). Of the 82 participants, 66 (80.5%) were women, the mean (SD) age was 57.8 (4.9) years, and the mean (SD) BMI was 43.8 (5.5). Thirty-nine participants (95.1%) in the intervention group underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and 29 (70.7%) subsequently underwent TKA. Thirty-nine patients (95.1%) in the TAU group underwent TKA. Six patients (14.6%) in the intervention group incurred the primary outcome (median follow-up, 24 months), compared with 15 (36.6%) in the TAU group (median follow-up, 27 months) (difference, 22.0%; 95% CI, 3.7% to 40.3%; P = .02). The between-group difference in BMI at 12 months was -6.32 (95% CI, -7.90 to -4.50; P < .001) in favor of the intervention group. TKA was declined by 12 participants (29.3%) in the intervention group because of symptom improvement, whereas 2 participants (4.9%) in the TAU group declined TKA (difference, 24.4%; 95% CI, 9.0% to 39.8%; P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: Weight loss following bariatric surgery reduced the risk of complications of TKA in people with BMI greater than or equal to 35. Significantly fewer participants required TKA following weight loss, contributing to this finding. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12611001178932.
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    The Impact of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery on Total Joint Arthroplasty: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Rele, S ; Shadbolt, C ; Schilling, C ; Taylor, NF ; Dowsey, MM ; Choong, PFM (JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2021-03-01)
    BACKGROUND: The number of total joint arthroplasties (TJAs) being performed is increasing worldwide. To match this increasing demand, there has been focus on hastening patients' recovery of function. This effort has culminated in the formulation of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) strategies. However, with evolving ERAS programs and new recommendations, a review of current evidence is required to provide clinicians with up-to-date information about its effect on outcomes for TJA. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the utility of ERAS programs on patient, health service, and economic outcomes for primary, elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: A systematic search will be conducted in Medline (Ovid), EMCARE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), Web of Science, CINAHL, National Health Service Economic Evaluations Database, and the Cochrane Library. Analytical, observational, and experimental designs will be included in this systematic review. Only studies including patients undergoing primary TKA and THA comparing ERAS programs with conventional surgery and postoperative care will be included. Data related to patient outcomes, health service outcomes, safety, and economic evaluation will be extracted. RESULTS: The search terms and primary database searches have been finalized. Findings will be reported in narrative and tabular form. Where appropriate, random effects meta-analyses will be conducted for each outcome, and heterogeneity quantified with Cochran Q test and I2 statistic. Measures of effect or mean differences will be reported with 95% confidence intervals. The results of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSIONS: This protocol will guide a systematic review assessing outcomes associated with ERAS surgery in primary THA and TKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework osf.io/y4bhs; https://osf.io/y4bhs. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/25581.
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    Evaluating willingness for surgery using the SMART Choice (Knee) patient prognostic tool for total knee arthroplasty: study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial
    Zhou, Y ; Weeden, C ; Patten, L ; Dowsey, M ; Bunzli, S ; Choong, P ; Schilling, C (BMC, 2022-02-24)
    BACKGROUND: Approximately 1 in 5 patients feel unsatisfied after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Prognostic tools may aid in the patient selection process and reduce the proportion of patients who experience unsatisfactory surgery. This study uses the prognostic tool SMART Choice (Patient Prognostic Tool for Total Knee Arthroplasty) to predict patient improvement after TKA. The tool aims to be used by the patient without clinician input and does not require clinical data such as X-ray findings or blood results. The objective of this study is to evaluate the SMART Choice tool on patient decision making, particularly willingness for surgery. We hypothesise that the use of the SMART Choice tool will influence willingness to undergo surgery, especially when used earlier in the patient TKA journey. METHODS: This is a multicentred, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Participants will be recruited from the St. Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne (SVHM) Orthopaedic Clinic, and the client base of HCF, Australia (private health insurance company). Patients over 45 years of age who have been diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis and considering TKA are eligible for participation. Participants will be randomised to either use the SMART Choice tool or treatment as usual. The SMART Choice tool provides users with a prediction for improvement or deterioration / no change after surgery based on utility score change calculated from the Veterans-RAND 12 (VR-12) survey. The primary outcome of the study is patient willingness for TKA surgery. The secondary outcomes include evaluating the optimal timing for tool use and using decision quality questionnaires to understand the patient experience when using the tool. Participants will be followed up for 6 months from the time of recruitment. DISCUSSION: The SMART Choice tool has the potential to improve patient decision making for TKA. Although many prognostic tools have been developed for other areas of surgery, most are confined within academic bodies of work. This study will be one of the first to evaluate the impact of a prognostic tool on patient decision making using a prospective clinical trial, an important step in transitioning the tool for use in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12622000072718 . Prospectively registered - 21 January 2022.
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    A Nomogram for Predicting Non-Response to Surgery One Year after Elective Total Hip Replacement
    Dowsey, MM ; Spelman, T ; Choong, PFM (MDPI, 2022-03-01)
    BACKGROUND: Total hip replacement (THR) is a common and cost-effective procedure for end-stage osteoarthritis, but inappropriate utilization may be devaluing its true impact. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the internal validity of a prognostic algorithm for predicting the probability of non-response to THR surgery at 1 year. METHODS: Analysis of outcome data extracted from an institutional registry of individuals (N = 2177) following elective THR performed between January 2012 and December 2019. OMERACT-OARSI responder criteria were applied to Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function scores at pre- and 1 year post-THR, to determine non-response to surgery. Independent prognostic correlates of post-operative non-response observed in adjusted modelling were then used to develop a nomogram. RESULTS: A total of 194 (8.9%) cases were deemed non-responders to THR. The degree of contribution (OR, 95% CI) of each explanatory factor to non-response on the nomogram was, morbid obesity (1.88, 1.16, 3.05), Kellgren-Lawrence grade <4 (1.89, 1.39, 2.56), WOMAC Global rating per 10 units (0.86, 0.79, 0.94) and the following co-morbidities: cerebrovascular disease (2.39, 1.33, 4.30), chronic pulmonary disease (1.64; 1.00, 2.71), connective tissue disease (1.99, 1.17, 3.39), diabetes (1.86, 1.26, 2.75) and liver disease (2.28, 0.99, 5.27). The concordance index for the nomogram was 0.70. CONCLUSION: We have developed a prognostic nomogram to calculate the probability of non-response to THR surgery. In doing so, we determined that both the probability of and predictive prognostic factors for non-response to THR differed from a previously developed nomogram for total knee replacement (TKR), confirming the benefit of designing decision support tools that are both condition and surgery site specific. Future external validation of the nomogram is required to confirm its generalisability.
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    Addressing surgical inequity for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia's universal health care system: a call to action
    O'Brien, P ; Bunzli, S ; Lin, I ; Bessarab, D ; Coffin, J ; Dowsey, MM ; Choong, PFM (WILEY, 2021-01-28)
    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people continue to experience health inequity within the Australian health care system. Little research has examined how disparities in surgical care access and outcomes contribute to Aboriginal health. In this narrative review and call to action, we discuss five care points along the journey to high-quality surgical care: health care seeking, primary health care services, specialist services, surgery and surgical outcomes. We highlight barriers and disparities that exist along this journey, drawing examples from the field of joint replacement surgery. Finally, we present opportunities for change at the health system, health service and clinician level, calling upon researchers, clinicians and policy makers to confront the surgical disparities experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.