Surgery (St Vincent's) - Research Publications

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    Importance of preoperative diagnosis for management of patients with suspected retroperitoneal sarcoma
    Gyorki, DE ; Choong, PFM ; Slavin, J ; Henderson, MA (WILEY, 2018-04-01)
    Soft tissue sarcoma is an umbrella term which encompasses over 60 histological tumour types. Approximately 15% of soft tissue sarcomas arise in the retroperitoneum. This complex group of tumours poses unique management challenges due to their often large size, histological heterogeneity and complexity of anatomical relationships. This review discusses the management of retroperitoneal tumours including the need for preoperative diagnosis, the evidence for neoadjuvant radiotherapy, the role of multivisceral resection and the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach.
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    Human glandular organoid formation in murine engineering chambers after collagenase digestion and flow cytometry isolation of normal human breast tissue single cells
    Huo, CW ; Huang, D ; Chew, GL ; Hill, P ; Vohora, A ; Ingman, WV ; Glynn, DJ ; Godde, N ; Henderson, MA ; Thompson, EW ; Britt, KL (WILEY, 2016-11-01)
    Women with high mammographic density (MD) are at increased risk of breast cancer (BC) after adjustment for age and body mass index. We have developed a murine biochamber model in which both high MD (HMD) and low MD (LMD) tissue can be propagated. Here, we tested whether cells isolated by collagenase digestion and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from normal breast can be reconstituted in our biochamber model, which would allow cell-specific manipulations to be tested. Fresh breast tissue was collected from women (n = 7) undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. The tissue underwent collagenase digestion overnight and, in some cases, additional FACS enrichment to obtain mature epithelial, luminal progenitor, mammary stem, and stromal cells. Cells were then transferred bilaterally into biochambers in SCID mice (n = 5-7) and incubated for 6 weeks, before harvesting for histological analyses, and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, Ki-67, murine macrophages, and Cleaved Caspase-3. Biochambers inoculated with single cells after collagenase digestion or with flow cytometry contained glandular structures of human origin (human vimentin-positive), which expressed CK-14 and pan-CK, and were proliferating (Ki-67-positive). Glandular structures from the digested tissues were smaller than those in chambers seeded with finely chopped intact mammary tissue. Mouse macrophage infiltration was higher in the chambers arising from digested tissues. Pooled single cells and FACS fractionated cells were viable in the murine biochambers and formed proliferating glandular organoids of human origin. This is among the first report to demonstrate the success of formed human glandular organoids from isolated primary mammary cells in the murine biochamber model.
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    A case series of anal melanoma including the results of treatment with imatinib in selected patients
    Knowles, J ; Lynch, AC ; Warrier, SK ; Henderson, M ; Heriot, AG (WILEY, 2016-09-01)
    AIM: Anal melanoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. METHOD: All patients with a diagnosis of anal melanoma treated at a single institution between 2000 and 2012 were identified and their treatment and outcome were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixteen patients had a median survival of 2.9 years. Fourteen had Stage I or II disease with a median survival of 4.0 years and progression-free survival of 1.5 years. When used for disease staging, whole body positron emission tomography/CT identified an additional three sites of metastasis in five patients compared with CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Surgery involved wide local excision or abdominoperineal excision with respective local recurrence rates of 50% and 66%. Eleven patients underwent testing for c-Kit mutations, of whom five were positive. Four of these were treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, and showed rapid response of metastases outside the central nervous system. CONCLUSION: The outcome of this malignancy remains poor. PET is the modality of choice for disease staging. Testing tumours for c-Kit mutations may allow selected patients to participate in trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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    Intralesional PV-10 for in-transit melanomaA single-center experience
    Lippey, J ; Bousounis, R ; Behrenbruch, C ; McKay, B ; Spillane, J ; Henderson, MA ; Speakman, D ; Gyorki, DE (WILEY, 2016-09-01)
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    Management of Early Node-Positive Breast Cancer in Australia: A Multicentre Study
    Gannan, E ; Khoo, J ; Nightingale, S ; Suhardja, TS ; Lippey, J ; Keane, H ; Tan, KJ ; Clouston, D ; Gorelik, A ; Mann, GB (WILEY, 2016-07-01)
    To examine practice patterns for breast cancer patients with limited sentinel node (SN) disease in light of the ACOSOG Z0011 results. Retrospective analysis of patients with T1-2 breast cancer and positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) admitted between January 2009 and December 2012. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatments were recorded. Eight hundred positive SLNBs were identified. A total of 452 (56.5%) proceeded to completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND). cALND rate decreased from 65.1% to 49.7% from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. cALND was performed for micrometastasis or isolated tumor cells in 39.3% in 2009-2010 and 22.2% in 2011-2012, whereas for macrometastases the rates were 83.1% and 68.6%, respectively. cALND rates diminished for both Z0011-eligible and -ineligible patients. The ACOSOG Z0011 trial presentation and publication coincided with a reduction in cALND for breast cancer with limited nodal disease. There appears equipoise regarding management of macrometastatic SN disease.
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    Excision margins and sentinel lymph node status as prognostic factors in thick melanoma of the head and neck: A retrospective analysis
    Ruskin, O ; Sanelli, A ; Herschtal, A ; Webb, A ; Dixon, B ; Pohl, M ; Donahoe, S ; Spillane, J ; Henderson, MA ; Gyorki, DE (WILEY, 2016-09-01)
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    Knowledge and attitudes of Australian dermatologists towards sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: a mixed methods study.
    Smith, AL ; Watts, CG ; Robinson, S ; Schmid, H ; Goumas, C ; Mar, VJ ; Thompson, JF ; Rapport, F ; Australian Melanoma Centre of Research Excellence Study Group, ; Cust, AE (Wiley, 2021-05)
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In melanoma management, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is used to stage patients and to indicate prognosis. More recently, it has been used to select patients for adjuvant therapy. This study aimed to report knowledge of and attitudes towards SLNB for patients with melanoma among Australian dermatologists. METHODS: Mixed methods study using cross-sectional questionnaires (n = 88) and semi-structured interviews (n = 13), May-September 2019. RESULTS: Of the dermatologists surveyed, 56% thought SLNB had an important role in melanoma management, 26% were unsure and 18% thought SLNB unimportant. Of the 92% who would discuss SLNB with their patients, the main stated value of SLNB was for assessing eligibility for adjuvant therapies (79%); only 60% indicated SLNB was of value for providing prognostic information, and just over half (53%) thought it could improve staging. Interview data indicated that attitudes towards SLNB are shifting among dermatologists, driven by data from landmark clinical trials and the influence of professional networks. Accordingly, interviewees adopted one of three positions in relation to SLNB: (a) believed in utility of SLNB and adhered to the guidelines; (b) were unconvinced about utility of SLNB but adhered to the guidelines; and (c) were unconvinced about utility of SLNB and did not adhere to the guidelines. CONCLUSION: Although most of the dermatologists surveyed were familiar with and follow the SLNB recommendations, some disagreement with and distrust of the recommendations was evident. Greater acceptance of the SLNB recommendations appeared to be driven by the improved outcomes demonstrated in stage III patients receiving adjuvant systemic therapy.
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    New treatment paradigms for clinically apparent metastatic melanoma in regional lymph nodes
    Henderson, MA ; Spillane, J ; Hughes, TM ; Spillane, AJ ; Smithers, BM ; Thompson, JF (WILEY, 2019-10-01)
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    Accuracy of partial biopsies in the management of cutaneous melanoma
    Doolan, BJ ; Robinson, AJ ; Wolfe, R ; Kelly, JW ; McLean, C ; McCormack, C ; Henderson, MA ; Pan, Y (WILEY, 2019-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: The recommended method for histopathological diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma is excisional biopsy, although partial biopsies (shave and punch) are often used. Following a partial biopsy, treatment guidelines recommend a narrow excisional biopsy to plan definitive management. There is limited evidence on the benefits of direct wide local excision (WLE) following diagnostic partial biopsies. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of cutaneous melanoma cases, from two tertiary referral centres from January 2013 to December 2015. Demographic and histopathological data, including tumour thickness (T-stage) from initial biopsy and subsequent excisions, were collected. Logistic regression was used to examine histopathological T-staging between biopsy and subsequent excisions (upstaging). RESULTS: 2304 melanomas (2157 patients) were identified; 455 shave, 308 punch, 14 incisional and 1527 excisional biopsies. Out of 1527, 5 (<1%) excisional biopsies were upstaged from original biopsy T-stage to final WLE; compared to 28/455 (6%) for shave, 45/308 (15%) for punch and 2/14 (14%) for incisional biopsies. Histopathology upstaging were increased with punch (OR, 52.1; 95% CI, 20.5-132.4. P < 0.001) and shave biopsy (OR, 20.0; 95% CI, 7.7-52.0. P < 0.001) compared to excisional biopsy. Upstaging rates of 9.4% for desmoplastic (OR, 6.9; 95% CI, 2.4-19.7. P < 0.001) and 21.9% for acral lentiginous (OR, 18.4; 95% CI, 6.9-49.2. P < 0.001) melanomas were elevated compared to 1.4% for superficial spreading melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, partial biopsy (particularly shave biopsy) can provide sufficient information to plan for definitive surgical melanoma management. Punch and incisional biopsies have elevated upstaging rates, a consideration in planning therapy. Partial biopsies of desmoplastic or acral lentiginous melanomas have high rates of upstaging and should have a complete excision prior to definitive treatment.
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    "Scalp coordinate system': a new tool to accurately describe cutaneous lesions on the scalp: a pilot study
    Alexander, W ; Miller, G ; Alexander, P ; Henderson, MA ; Webb, A (WILEY, 2019-04-01)
    BACKGROUND: Skin cancers are extremely common and the incidence increases with age. Care for patients with multiple or complicated skin cancers often require multidisciplinary input involving a general practitioner, dermatologist, plastic surgeon and/or radiation oncologist. Timely, efficient care of these patients relies on precise and effective communication between all parties. Until now, descriptions regarding the location of lesions on the scalp have been inaccurate, which can lead to error with the incorrect lesion being excised or biopsied. METHODS: A novel technique for accurately and efficiently describing the location of lesions on the scalp, using a coordinate system, is described (the 'scalp coordinate system' (SCS)). This method was tested in a pilot study by clinicians typically involved in the care of patients with cutaneous malignancies. A mannequin scalp was used in the study. RESULTS: The SCS significantly improved the accuracy in the ability to both describe and locate lesions on the scalp. This improved accuracy comes at a minor time cost. DISCUSSION: The direct and indirect costs arising from poor communication between medical subspecialties (particularly relevant in surgical procedures) are immense. An effective tool used by all involved clinicians is long overdue particularly in patients with scalps with extensive actinic damage, scarring or innocuous biopsy sites. The SCS provides the opportunity to improve outcomes for both the patient and healthcare system.