Surgery (St Vincent's) - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The role of F-18-FDG PET/CT in retroperitoneal sarcomas-A multicenter retrospective study
    Subramaniam, S ; Callahan, J ; Bressel, M ; Hofman, MS ; Mitchell, C ; Hendry, S ; Vissers, FL ; Van Der Hiel, B ; Patel, D ; Van Houdt, WJ ; Tseng, WW ; Gyorki, DE (WILEY, 2021-01-14)
    BACKGROUND: The role of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) in the evaluation of retroperitoneal sarcomas is poorly defined. We evaluated the correlation of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) with pathologic tumor grade in the surgical specimen of primary retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS). METHODS: Patients with the above histological subtypes in three participating institutions with preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan and histopathological specimen available for review were included. The association between SUVmax and pathological grade was assessed. Correlation between SUVmax and relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were also studied. RESULTS: Of the total 58 patients, final pathological subtype was DDLPS in 44 (75.9%) patients and LMS in 14 (24.1%) patients. The mean SUVmax was 8.7 with a median 7.1 (range, 2.2-33.9). The tumors were graded I, II, III in 6 (10.3%), 35 (60.3%), and 17 (29.3%) patients, respectively. There was an association of higher histological grade with higher SUVmax (rs  = 0.40, p = .002). Increasing SUVmax was associated with worse RFS (p = .003) and OS (p = .003). CONCLUSION: There is a correlation between SUVmax and pathologic tumor grade; increasing SUVmax was associated with worse OS and RFS, providing a preoperative noninvasive surrogate marker of tumor grade and biological behavior.
  • Item
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Arthroplasty information on the internet: quality or quantity?
    Davaris, MT ; Dowsey, MM ; Bunzli, S ; Choong, PF (Elsevier, 2021-04-01)
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Abstract 2671: SMAD4 as a potential gatekeeper for genomic instability and mTOR-mediated tumorigenesis in esophageal adenocarcinoma
    Milne, JV ; Gotovac, JR ; Fujihara, KM ; Duong, CP ; Phillips, WA ; Clemons, NJ (American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), 2021-07-01)
    Abstract Esophageal cancer is the 8th most common cancer worldwide and has the 6th highest mortality rate of all cancers. The 5-year survival rate following esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) diagnosis is dismal at less than 15 percent, indicating a dire need for improved therapeutic strategies and early detection. EAC develops stepwise following exposure to chronic gastric reflux: From pre-malignant Barrett's metaplasia, through stages of low- and high-grade dysplasia until developing into invasive cancer. Mutation or loss of common tumor suppressor genes TP53 and SMAD4 act as markers for cancer progression, occurring in high-grade dysplastic tissue and invasive EAC, respectively. Our novel in vivo tumorigenesis model demonstrates progression of Barrett's metaplasia to EAC, in which SMAD4-deficient Barrett's metaplasia cells form tumors in immunodeficient mice after a period of latency and in a dose-dependent manner. This delayed tumor growth onset suggests further drivers are required for oncogenesis, and these SMAD4-deficient cells and tumors display a greater degree of genomic instability than wildtype-SMAD4 controls. A genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen unveiled a synthetic lethal relationship between SMAD4-deficiency and cell cycle checkpoint inhibition, suggesting a role for SMAD4 in maintaining genomic stability and a potential novel therapeutic avenue for SMAD4-deficient EAC. Additionally, a concurrent in vivo CRISPR-Cas9 tumorigenesis screen produced tumors 4-fold faster than the previous model and identified regulators of mTOR signaling as co-operative drivers of tumorigenesis in EAC. Wildtype-SMAD4 cells failed to generate tumors despite undergoing the same genetic perturbations, indicating a potential gatekeeping effect of SMAD4 in mTOR-mediated EAC tumorigenesis. In sum, loss of SMAD4 acts as a double-edged sword, increasing genomic instability and thereby rendering EAC cells sensitive to cell cycle checkpoint inhibition, whilst simultaneously co-operating with modulated mTOR signaling to promote tumorigenesis in EAC xenograft models. Citation Format: Julia V. Milne, Jovana R. Gotovac, Kenji M. Fujihara, Cuong P. Duong, Wayne A. Phillips, Nicholas J. Clemons. SMAD4 as a potential gatekeeper for genomic instability and mTOR-mediated tumorigenesis in esophageal adenocarcinoma [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr 2671.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    PROSTATE MRI LEARNING CURVE AND VALUE OF EXPERIENCE: AN INTRAREADER VARIABILITY STUDY
    Whish-Wilson, T ; Tan, J ; Cross, W ; Wong, L ; Sutherland, T (WILEY, 2020-11-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Patterns of care and outcomes for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Victoria: an update
    Wang, LL ; Begashaw, K ; Evans, M ; Earnest, A ; Evans, SM ; Millar, JL ; Murphy, DG ; Moon, D (WILEY, 2018-10-01)
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Patient derived organoid model of penile squamous cell carcinoma
    Teh, J ; Guerra, G ; Heriot, A ; Ramsay, R ; Lawrentschuk, N (Elsevier BV, 2020-07)
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    The Inferior Gluteal Artery Myocutaneous Flap Is Preferable for Reconstructing the Complex Perineal Defect Following Pelvic Exenteration
    Chauhan, A ; Morrison, E ; Lonie, S ; Sham, E ; Heriot, A (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2020)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    ARE VICTORIAN WOMEN INTERESTED IN RISK STRATIFIED BREAST SCREENING?
    Lippey, J ; Keogh, L ; Mann, GB ; Campbell, I ; Forrest, L (CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE, 2020-04-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    CD8+TISSUE-RESIDENT MEMORY T CELLS ARE TUMOUR REACTIVE AND INCREASE AFTER IMMUNOTHERAPY IN A CASE OF METASTATIC MUCOSAL MELANOMA
    Pizzolla, A ; Keam, S ; Vergara, I ; Caramia, F ; Wang, M ; Kocovski, N ; ThuNgoc, N ; Macdonald, S ; Tantalo, D ; Petrone, P ; Yeang, HXA ; Gyorki, D ; Weppler, A ; Au-Yeung, G ; Sandhu, S ; Perdicchio, M ; McArthur, G ; Papenfuss, T ; Neeson, P (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-11-01)
    Background Mucosal melanoma is a rare subtype of melanoma originating from mucosal tissues (1), metastases are very aggressive and respond poorly to therapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) such as anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 antibodies (2–5). CD8+ T cells constitute the most abundant immune infiltrate in metastatic melanoma, of which the Tissue Resident Memory subset (TRM) is of particular interest (6). CD8+ TRM cells express the highest levels of immune checkpoint receptors, proliferate in response to ICI and correlate with longer disease-free and overall survival (6–8). The immune landscape in mucosal melanoma remains poorly characterized. We aimed to: 1) phenotype CD8+ T cells and TRM infiltrating metastatic mucosal melanoma, 2) characterize the clonality of TRM in relation to other CD8+ T cell subsets and 3) define the capacity of CD8+ T cells and TRM to respond to melanoma cells and to in vivo and in vitro anti-PD1 treatment. Methods We investigated the CD8+ T and TRM cells infiltrating two temporally- and spatially-distant subcutaneous metastases, these originated from a primary vaginal mucosal melanoma. One metastasis was excised prior to anti-PD1 treatment and one was anti-PD1 refractory, having progressed on treatment. We used mass cytometry and single-cell RNA and TCR sequencing to characterise the phenotype and clonality of the T cells, multiplex immunohistochemistry to define their spatial relationship with tumour cells and other T cells, and functional assays to determine TRM response to tumour cells (figure 1). Results CD8+ TRM frequency increased with time and anti-PD1 treatment, forming clusters at the tumour margin. T cells in the anti-PD1 refractory lesion were more activated than T cells in the first tumour and were bound by anti-PD1 antibody in vivo. T cells could not be stimulated by anti-PD1 directly ex vivo. Both metastatic lesions shared common T cell clusters including TRM. Furthermore, TRM in each tumour shared T cell clones, suggesting the presence of common antigens between metastatic sites. Indeed, the two metastases had a similar mutational profile. In vitro expanded tumour infiltrating lymphocytes from both lesions recognized tumour cells from both lesions and the same neoantigen generated from a single point mutation in the gene CDKN1C. Finally, tumour cells stimulated TRM cells more robustly than other T cells subsets. Abstract 548 Figure 1Graphical depiction of the methods used to characterise T cells in mucosal metastatic melanoma Conclusions In this patient with vaginal mucosal melanoma, subsequent melanoma metastases of clonal origin attracted CD8+ T cells of similar specificity, among which TRM cells responded more vigorously to tumour cells than other T cells subsets. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge imCORE La Hoffmann- Roche Ltd. for funding. Ethics Approval Patients diagnosed with stage 3 or 4 metastatic melanoma and undergoing clinically indicated surgery were enrolled in prospective studies approved by the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre human ethics research committee (13/141). All experimental protocols have been approved and clinical data has been collected prospectively. References Carvajal RD, Hamid O, Ariyan C. Mucosal Melanoma. [cited 2020 Apr 1]; Available from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/mucosal-melanoma Del Vecchio M, Di Guardo L, Ascierto PA, Grimaldi AM, Sileni VC, Pigozzo J, et al. Efficacy and safety of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg in patients with pretreated, metastatic, mucosal melanoma. Eur J Cancer Oxf Engl 1990; 2014 Jan;50(1):121–7. Postow MA, Luke JJ, Bluth MJ, Ramaiya N, Panageas KS, Lawrence DP, et al. Ipilimumab for patients with advanced mucosal melanoma. The Oncologist 2013 Jun;18(6):726–32. D’Angelo SP, Larkin J, Sosman JA, Lebbé C, Brady B, Neyns B, et al. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab alone or in combination with ipilimumab in patients with mucosal melanoma: a pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2017 Jan 10;35(2):226–35. Hamid O, Robert C, Ribas A, Hodi FS, Walpole E, Daud A, et al. Antitumour activity of pembrolizumab in advanced mucosal melanoma: a post-hoc analysis of KEYNOTE-001, 002, 006. Br J Cancer 2018;119(6):670–4. Boddupalli CS, Bar N, Kadaveru K, Krauthammer M, Pornputtapong N, Mai Z, et al. Interlesional diversity of T cell receptors in melanoma with immune checkpoints enriched in tissue-resident memory T cells. JCI Insight [Internet]. 2016 Dec 22 [cited 2019 Apr 24];1(21). Available from: https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/88955 Edwards J, Wilmott JS, Madore J, Gide TN, Quek C, Tasker A, et al. CD103+ Tumor-resident CD8+ T cells are associated with improved survival in immunotherapy-naïve melanoma patients and expand significantly during anti-PD-1 treatment. Clin Cancer Res Off J Am Assoc Cancer Res 2018 Jul 1;24(13):3036–45. Savas P, Virassamy B, Ye C, Salim A, Mintoff CP, Caramia F, et al. Single-cell profiling of breast cancer T cells reveals a tissue-resident memory subset associated with improved prognosis. Nat Med 2018 Jul;24(7):986–93.