Graeme Clark Collection

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 58
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The effects of electrode position and stimulus period on the hearing sensations in a multiple-channel cochlear implant patient [Abstract]
    Tong, Y. C. ; Blamey, P. J. ; Dowell, R. C. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1981)
    Abstract not available due to copyright.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Perceptual dissimilarity and discrimination studies using two-electrode stimulation with a multiple-channel cochlear implant patient [Abstract]
    Dowell, R. C. ; Tong, Y. C. ; Blamey, P. J. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1981)
    Abstract not available due to copyright.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Pitch and loudness studies on a multiple-channel cochlear implant patient [Abstract]
    Blamey, P. J. ; Tong, Y. C. ; Dowell, R. C. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1981)
    Abstract not available due to copyright.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Speech perception in children using cochlear implants: prediction of long-term outcomes.
    Dowell, RC ; Dettman, SJ ; Blamey, PJ ; Barker, EJ ; Clark, GM (Maney Publishing, 2002-03)
    A group of 102 children using the Nucleus multichannel cochlear implant were assessed for open-set speech perception abilities at six-monthly intervals following implant surgery. The group included a wide range of ages, types of hearing loss, ages at onset of hearing loss, experience with implant use and communication modes. Multivariate analysis indicated that a shorter duration of profound hearing loss, later onset of profound hearing loss, exclusively oral/aural communication and greater experience with the implant were associated with better open-set speech perception. Developmental delay was associated with poorer speech perception and the SPEAK signal coding scheme was shown to provide better speech perception performance than previous signal processors. Results indicated that postoperative speech perception outcomes could be predicted with an accuracy that is clinically useful.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Variation in speech perception scores among children with cochlear implants
    Sarant, JZ ; Blamey, PJ ; Dowell, RC ; Clark, GM ; Gibson, WPR (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2001-02-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify common factors affecting speech perception scores in children with cochlear implants. DESIGN: Speech perception data for 167 implanted children were collected at two cochlear implant centres in Melbourne and Sydney. The data comprised audition-alone scores on open-set word and sentence tests. Children were selected on the basis that they had a Nucleus 22-electrode cochlear implant. The average age of the children was 5 yr. Information was also collected about 12 factors that may have influenced speech perception scores for each child. Analysis of covariance was used to identify factors that significantly affected speech perception scores. Pearson pairwise correlation coefficients were also calculated for all factors analyzed. RESULTS: The analyses in this study identified factors that accounted for 51%, 34%, and 45% of the variance in phoneme, word and sentence perception scores. Scores decreased by 1.4 to 2.4% per year of profound deafness prior to implantation. Children who normally use oral communication scored significantly higher than children normally using sign or simultaneous oral and sign communication. Children implanted in Sydney scored higher on average than children implanted in Melbourne. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that a significant part of the variation in speech perception scores is systematically related to audiological and environmental factors for each child. The reasons for significant differences between children using different communication modes or from different clinics were not identified.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The development of speech perception in children using cochlear implants: effects of etiologic factors and delayed milestones
    PYMAN, BRIAN ; Blamey, Peter J. ; Lacy, Peter ; Clark, Graeme M. ; DOWELL, RICHARD ( 2000)
    Hypothesis: Speech perception outcomes for cochlear implantation of children vary over a wide range, and it is hypothesized that central pathologic states associated with certain causes of hearing impairment account for a substantial part of the variance. Study Design: A retrospective analysis was carried out to ascertain the relationships between speech perception, etiologic factors, and central pathologic states as indicated by preoperative delayed motor milestones and/or cognitive delays. Setting: Data were obtained from the pre-and postoperative records of patients attending a hospital cochlear implant clinic. Patients: Results for 75 consecutive patients up to age 5 years who underwent implantation were included in the study. Intervention: Patients received a 22-electrode cochlear prosthesis and were seen by the clinic for regular tune-up and assessments. Home-and school-based habilitation was recommended by the clinic. Main Outcome Measures: Speech perception measures were classified on a five-point scale to allow for different evaluation procedures at different ages and developmental stages. Results: The incidence of motor and cognitive delays were fairly evenly spread across etiologic factors, except for cytomegalovirus, which had a much higher than average incidence. Children with motor and/or cognitive delays were significantly slower than other children in the development of speech perception skills after implantation. Etiologic factors did not have a statistically significant effect on speech perception outcome. Conclusions: It is likely that central pathologic states account for a substantial part of the variance among children using cochlear implants. Specific indicators of central pathologic states should be used to assess a child's prognosis in preference to less specific information based on etiologic factors alone.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Potential and limitations of cochlear implants in children
    Dowell, R. C. ; Blamey, P. J. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1995)
    Multiple-channel cochlear implants have been in use with children and adolescents for 8 years. The speech perception, speech production, and language of many of these children has been investigated in some detail.l-4 There have been many predictions about factors that may affect the performance of children with implants. For instance, it has been suggested that children with a congenital loss of hearing would not have the same potential to benefit from a cochlear implant as those with an acquired loss. Similarly, it has been suggested that younger children are likely to gain more benefit from a cochlear implant because of the effect of various critical ages for language learning.5 As more results have become available, it has been our observation that the performance of any particular child with a cochlear implant does not appear to follow well-defined rules, and that generalizations about the potential of certain groups of children are likely to encounter many exceptions. We now have a large quantity of results for children using cochlear implants, and it may be possible to determine some of the factors that have a significant effect on performance. This paper will attempt to identify some of these factors by reviewing speech perception results for 100 children implanted with the Nucleus 22-channel cochlear prosthesis in Australia and speech perception results for adult patients. This analysis will use an "information processing" model of a child using a cochlear implant. That is, we will assume that a child will benefit from a cochlear implant in terms of speech perception, production, and language development, if he or she receives a maximal amount of auditory information from the environment, and is able to process this information successfully. This model divides potential limiting or predictive factors into those that affect the information presented to the auditory system (eg, implant technology, surviving auditory neurons) and those that affect the processing of this information (eg, development of central auditory pathways, amount and consistency of auditory input).
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Vowel imitation task: results over time for 28 cochlear implant children under the age of eight years
    Dettman, S. J. ; Barker, E. J. ; Dowell, R. C. ; Dawson, P. W. ; Blamey, P. J. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1995)
    With increasing numbers of implanted children under the age of 4 years, numerous researchers have reminded us of the need for valid, sensitive, and reliable tests of developing speech perception.1,2 In addition to studies of the efficacy of implanted prostheses, there is a need to investigate the many variables that influence children's communicative performance, such as changes in speech-coding strategy, updated speech-processing systems, the effects of various training regimens, and the selection of educational and communication modes.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Signal processing for multichannel cochlear implants: past, present and future [Abstract]
    DOWELL, RICHARD ; SELIGMAN, PETER ; MCDERMOTT, HUGH ; Whitford, Lesley ; BLAMEY, PETER ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1994)
    Since the late 1970's, many groups have worked on developing effective signal processing for multichannel cochlear implants. The main aim of such schemes has been to provide the best possible speech perception for those using the device. Secondary aims of providing awareness and discrimination of environmental sounds and appreciation of music have also been considered. Early designs included some that attempted to simulate the normal cochlea. The application of such complex processing schemes was limited by the technology of the times. In some cases, researchers reverted to the use of single channel systems which could be controlled reliably with the existing technology. In other cases, as with the Australian implant, a simple multichannel processing scheme was devised that allowed a reliable implementation with available electronics. Over the next 15 years, largely due to the improvements in integrated circuit technology, the signal processors have slowly become more complex. Further psychophysical research has shown how additional information can be transferred effectively to implant users via electrical stimulation of the cochlea. This has lead to rapid improvement in the speech perception abilities of adults using cochlear implants. Some of the main developments in signal processing over the last 15 years will be discussed along with the latest speech perception results obtained with the new SPEAK processing scheme for the Australian 22-channel cochlear implant. Initial results for SPEAK show mean scores of 70% (equivalent to 85-90% phoneme scores) for open set monosyllabic word testing for experienced adult users. Although there remains a large range of performance for all users of cochlear implants, average speech perception scores for all implanted adults have also improved significantly with the developments in signal processing. It appears likely that multichannel cochlear implants will be a viable alternative for the treatment of severe hearing loss in the future.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Issues in long-term management of children with cochlear implants and tactile devices [Abstract]
    COWAN, ROBERT ; DOWELL, RICHARD ; Barker, Elizabeth ; GALVIN, KARYN ; DETTMAN, SHANI ; SARANT, JULIA ; RANCE, GARY ; Hollow, Rod ; BLAMEY, PETER ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1994)
    For many children with severe and profound hearing losses, conventional hearing aids are unable to provide sufficient amplification to ensure good oral communication and/or in the case of very young children, development of speech and language. Traditionally a number of these children have opted for the use of sign language alone or in Total Communication approaches as a primary means of communication. The advent of multiple channel cochlear implants for children and the continuing development of multiple channel speech processing tactile devices provide auditory approaches to resolving communication difficulties for these children. The successful use of such devices depends on a number of factors including the information provided through the aid; the ease of use, convenience and reliability of the aid; the individual communication needs of the child; and the habilitation and management program used with the device. Long-term data has shown that children continue to show increased speech perception benefits from improvements in speech processing and from further experience with these devices. Habilitation and management programs must therefore be geared to meet the changing needs of children as they progress and of families as children mature and face new challenges. Habilitation must address specific individual needs in speech perception and in speech production. For very young children, benefits of improved speech perception should have an impact on the development of speech and language, and habilitation and management must emphasise the need for language growth.