Graeme Clark Collection

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    Cognitive processing in children using cochlear implants: the relationship between visual memory, attention, and executive functions and developing language skills
    Surowiecki, Vanessa N. ; SARANT, JULIA ; MARUFF, PAUL ; Blamey, Peter J. ; Busby, Peter A. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2002)
    We performed this study to determine whether children using a cochlear implant performed differently from age- and gender-matched hearing aid users on 8 neuropsychological measures of visual memory, attention, and executive functioning. The study also examined whether differences in cognitive skills could account for some of the observed variance in speech perception, vocabulary, and language abilities of hearing-impaired children. In contrast to previous studies, our results revealed no significant cognitive differences between children who use a cochlear implant and children who use hearing aids. Partial correlation analysis indicated that the children’s visual memory skills, i.e., their recognition memory, delayed recall, and paired associative learning memory skills, correlated significantly with their language skills. When examined at a significance level of .01, attention and executive functioning skills did not relate to the children’s developing speech perception, vocabulary, or language skills. The results suggested that differences in visual memory skills may account for some of the variance seen in the language abilities of children using implants and children using hearing aids.
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    Speech perception in children using cochlear implants: prediction of long-term outcomes.
    Dowell, RC ; Dettman, SJ ; Blamey, PJ ; Barker, EJ ; Clark, GM (Maney Publishing, 2002-03)
    A group of 102 children using the Nucleus multichannel cochlear implant were assessed for open-set speech perception abilities at six-monthly intervals following implant surgery. The group included a wide range of ages, types of hearing loss, ages at onset of hearing loss, experience with implant use and communication modes. Multivariate analysis indicated that a shorter duration of profound hearing loss, later onset of profound hearing loss, exclusively oral/aural communication and greater experience with the implant were associated with better open-set speech perception. Developmental delay was associated with poorer speech perception and the SPEAK signal coding scheme was shown to provide better speech perception performance than previous signal processors. Results indicated that postoperative speech perception outcomes could be predicted with an accuracy that is clinically useful.
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    Variation in speech perception scores among children with cochlear implants
    Sarant, JZ ; Blamey, PJ ; Dowell, RC ; Clark, GM ; Gibson, WPR (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2001-02-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify common factors affecting speech perception scores in children with cochlear implants. DESIGN: Speech perception data for 167 implanted children were collected at two cochlear implant centres in Melbourne and Sydney. The data comprised audition-alone scores on open-set word and sentence tests. Children were selected on the basis that they had a Nucleus 22-electrode cochlear implant. The average age of the children was 5 yr. Information was also collected about 12 factors that may have influenced speech perception scores for each child. Analysis of covariance was used to identify factors that significantly affected speech perception scores. Pearson pairwise correlation coefficients were also calculated for all factors analyzed. RESULTS: The analyses in this study identified factors that accounted for 51%, 34%, and 45% of the variance in phoneme, word and sentence perception scores. Scores decreased by 1.4 to 2.4% per year of profound deafness prior to implantation. Children who normally use oral communication scored significantly higher than children normally using sign or simultaneous oral and sign communication. Children implanted in Sydney scored higher on average than children implanted in Melbourne. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that a significant part of the variation in speech perception scores is systematically related to audiological and environmental factors for each child. The reasons for significant differences between children using different communication modes or from different clinics were not identified.
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    A comparison of a new prototype Tickle Talker with a Tactaid 7
    Galvin, Karyn L. ; Ginis, Jan ; Cowan, Robert S. C. ; Blamey, Peter J. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2001)
    This study compared the speech perception enhancement provided by two multichannel tactile aids: a new version of the Tickle TalkerT™ and the Tactaid 7. The subjects' impression of benefit was also examined. In an AB pattern, six adults with hearing impairment used each device daily for approximately 18 weeks and attended 12 training sessions. When tactile information was provided, the group demonstrated a significant enhancement for the perception of words (mean 17.2%) and phonemes (mean 12.9%) in monosyllabic word lists, words in sentences (mean 14.2%) and speech tracking (mean 7.7 wpm). The Tactaid 7 provided a significantly greater enhancement for the perception of words (21 % versus 13.4%), phonemes (16.7% versus 9.1%) and some speech features in monosyllabic word lists. Subjective ratings were slightly higher for the Tactaid 7, and four subjects preferred this device. Either device may be suitable for those not able or willing to have a cochlear implant.
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    The development of speech perception in children using cochlear implants: effects of etiologic factors and delayed milestones
    PYMAN, BRIAN ; Blamey, Peter J. ; Lacy, Peter ; Clark, Graeme M. ; DOWELL, RICHARD ( 2000)
    Hypothesis: Speech perception outcomes for cochlear implantation of children vary over a wide range, and it is hypothesized that central pathologic states associated with certain causes of hearing impairment account for a substantial part of the variance. Study Design: A retrospective analysis was carried out to ascertain the relationships between speech perception, etiologic factors, and central pathologic states as indicated by preoperative delayed motor milestones and/or cognitive delays. Setting: Data were obtained from the pre-and postoperative records of patients attending a hospital cochlear implant clinic. Patients: Results for 75 consecutive patients up to age 5 years who underwent implantation were included in the study. Intervention: Patients received a 22-electrode cochlear prosthesis and were seen by the clinic for regular tune-up and assessments. Home-and school-based habilitation was recommended by the clinic. Main Outcome Measures: Speech perception measures were classified on a five-point scale to allow for different evaluation procedures at different ages and developmental stages. Results: The incidence of motor and cognitive delays were fairly evenly spread across etiologic factors, except for cytomegalovirus, which had a much higher than average incidence. Children with motor and/or cognitive delays were significantly slower than other children in the development of speech perception skills after implantation. Etiologic factors did not have a statistically significant effect on speech perception outcome. Conclusions: It is likely that central pathologic states account for a substantial part of the variance among children using cochlear implants. Specific indicators of central pathologic states should be used to assess a child's prognosis in preference to less specific information based on etiologic factors alone.
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    Generalisation of tactile perceptual skills to new context following tactile-alone word recognition training with the Tickle Talker
    Galvin, Karyn L. ; Blamey, Peter J. ; Cowan, Robert S. C. ; Oerlemans, Michael ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2000)
    Abstract not available due to copyright.
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    Improved sound processing for cochlear implants
    James, C.J. ; Just, Y. ; Knight, M.R. ; Martin, L.F.A. ; McKay, C.M. ; Plant, K.L. ; Tari, S. ; Vandali, A.E. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; Cowan, R.S.C. ; McDermott, H. J. ; Blamey, P. J. ; Dawson, P. ; Fearn, R. A. ; Grayden, D. B. ; Henshall, K. R. ( 2002)
    Four signal processing schemes currently under development aim to improve the perception of sounds/ especially speech, for children and adults using the Nucleus cochlear implant system. The schemes are (1) fast-acting input-signal compression, (2) Adaptive Dynamic Range Optimisation (ADRO), (3) TESM, a scheme that emphasises transients in signals, and (4) DRSP, a strategy that applies different stimulation rates to selected sets of electrodes.
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    What factors contribute to successful outcomes for children using cochlear implants
    Cowan, Robert C. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; Dowell, Richard C. ; Dettman, Shani J ; Barker, Elizabeth ; Latus, Katie ; Hollow, Rod ; Blamey, Peter J. ( 2000)
    Long term speech perception data has been collected for 100 children using the Nucleus multichannel cochlear prosthesis in Melbourne. Scores on a number of different assessments are available at approximately six month intervals following implantation for these children. The group represents an unselected sample of cochlear implant users, as all children were included if they had sufficient developmental skills to perform formal speech perception tests. Information was also collected on each child regarding type of hearing loss, age of onset of profound hearing loss, duration of profound hearing loss, age at implantation, pre and post-implant communication mode, developmental delay, speech processing strategy and length of experience with implant use.
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    Latest results for adults & children using cochlear implants & future implications
    Cowan, Robert C. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; Dowell, Richard C. ; Dettman, Shani J ; Barker, Elizabeth ; Latus, Katie ; Hollow, Rod ; Blamey, Peter J. ( 2000)
    The overall success of a cochlear implant procedure is most often quantified by assessing how well implantees can understand speech. This is because a primary aim of the application of cochlear implants is to improve communication, and it is relatively straightforward to obtain accurate measures of speech recognition. The quality of cochlear implant hearing is not well described by measuring an audiogram, as the detection of sound is similar across all implantees if the device is functioning correctly. A commonly used measure of speech understanding is the CID everyday sentence test where the number of correctly identified words within sentences is assessed. In the early days of cochlear implants, subjects could only recognize a few words without lipreading but the most recent results show average scores of 80% without lipreading for this sentence test, after 6 months of experience with the device.