Graeme Clark Collection

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    A study of intra-cochlear electrodes and tissue interface by electrochemical impedance methods in vivo
    Duan, Y. Y. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; Cowan, R. S. C. ( 2004)
    Unavailable due to copyright.
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    The role of radiographic phase-contrast imaging in the development of intracochlear electrode arrays
    XU, JIN ; Stevenson, Andrew W. ; Gao, Dachao ; TYKOCINSKI, MICHAEL ; LAWRENCE, DAVID ; Wilkins, Stephen W. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; Saunders, Elaine ; Cowan, Robert S. ( 2001)
    Objective: This study describes the application of a new radiographic imaging modality, phase-contrast radiography, to in vitro human temporal bone imaging and investigates it use in the development of new electrode arrays for cochlear implants. Background: The development of perimodiolar electrode arrays for cochlear implants requires detailed information from postoperative radiologic assessment on the position of the array in relation to the cochlear structures. Current standard radiographic techniques provide only limited details. Materials and Methods: Nucleus standard electrode arrays and perimodiolar Contour electrode arrays were implanted into the scala tympani of 11 human temporal bones. Both conventional and phase-contrast radiographs were taken of each temporal bone for comparative purposes. Results: Phase-contrast imaging provides better visulization of anatomic details of the inner ear and of the structure of the intracochlear electrode array, and better definition of electrode location in relation to cochlear walls. Conclusion: Phase-contrast radiography offers significant improvement over conventional radiography in images of in vitro human temporal bones. It seems to be a valuable tool in the development of intracochlear electrode arrays and cochlear implant research. However, this new radiographic technique still requires certain computational and physics challenges to be addressed before its clinical use can be established.
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    The Contour electrode array: Safety study and initial patient trials of a new perimodiolar design
    Tykocinski, M ; Saunders, E ; Cohen, LT ; Treaba, C ; Briggs, RJS ; Gibson, P ; Clark, GM ; Cowan, RSC (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2001-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of these studies was to investigate the insertion properties and safety of a new intracochlear perimodiolar electrode array design (Contour). BACKGROUND: An electrode array positioned close to the neural elements could be expected to reduce stimulation thresholds and might potentially reduce channel interaction. METHODS: Two sequential studies were conducted. In study 1, the Contour electrode array was inserted in 12 human temporal bones. After cochlear surface preparation, the position of the array was noted and the basilar membrane was examined for insertion damage. On the basis of the outcome of this temporal bone study, study 2 investigated the Contour array, mounted on a Nucleus CI-24 M device and implanted in three adult patients. RESULTS: Study I showed that in 10 temporal bones, the Contour array was positioned close to the modiolus, and the basilar membrane was intact. In the two remaining bones, the arrays had pierced the basilar membrane and were positioned in the scala vestibuli apical to the penetration. Statistical analysis showed an equivalent probability of insertion-induced damage of the two array designs. In study 2, image analysis indicated that the Contour electrodes were positioned closer to the modiolus than the standard Nucleus straight array. Lower T and C levels, but higher impedance values, were recorded from electrodes close to the modiolus. Initial speech perception data showed that all patients gained useful open-set speech perception, two patients achieving scores of 100% on sentence material 3 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal bone studies showed the Contour electrode array to be generally positioned closer to the modiolus than the standard Nucleus straight array, and to have an equivalent probability of causing insertion-induced damage.
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    A comparison of a new prototype Tickle Talker with a Tactaid 7
    Galvin, Karyn L. ; Ginis, Jan ; Cowan, Robert S. C. ; Blamey, Peter J. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2001)
    This study compared the speech perception enhancement provided by two multichannel tactile aids: a new version of the Tickle TalkerT™ and the Tactaid 7. The subjects' impression of benefit was also examined. In an AB pattern, six adults with hearing impairment used each device daily for approximately 18 weeks and attended 12 training sessions. When tactile information was provided, the group demonstrated a significant enhancement for the perception of words (mean 17.2%) and phonemes (mean 12.9%) in monosyllabic word lists, words in sentences (mean 14.2%) and speech tracking (mean 7.7 wpm). The Tactaid 7 provided a significantly greater enhancement for the perception of words (21 % versus 13.4%), phonemes (16.7% versus 9.1%) and some speech features in monosyllabic word lists. Subjective ratings were slightly higher for the Tactaid 7, and four subjects preferred this device. Either device may be suitable for those not able or willing to have a cochlear implant.
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    Comparison of electrode position in the human cochlea using various perimodiolar electrode arrays
    TYKOCINSKI, MICHAEL ; Cohen, Lawrence T. ; Pyman, Brian C. ; Roland (Jr), Thomas ; Treaba, Claudiu ; PALAMARA, JOSEPH ; Dahm, Markus C. ; Shepherd, Robert K. ; XU, JIN ; Cowan, Robert S. ; Cohen, Noel L. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2000)
    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the insertion properties and intracochlear trajectories of three perimodiolar electrode array designs and to compare these designs with the standard Cochlear /Melbourne array. Background: Advantages to be expected of a perimodiolar electrode array include both a reduction in stimulus thresholds and an increase in dynamic range, resulting in a more localized stimulation pattern of the spiral ganglion cells, reduced power consumption, and, therefore, longer speech processor battery life. Methods: The test arrays were implanted into human temporal bones. Image analysis was performed on a radiograph taken after the insertion. The cochleas were then histologically processed with the electrode array in situ, and the resulting sections were subsequently assessed for position of the electrode array as well as insertion-related intracochlear damage. Results: All perimodiolar electrode arrays were inserted deeper and showed trajectories that were generally closer to the modiolus compared with the standard electrode array. However, although the precurved array designs did not show significant insertion trauma, the method of insertion needed improvement. After insertion of the straight electrode array with positioner, signs of severe insertion trauma in the majority o fimplanted cochleas were found. Conclusions: Although it was possible to position the electrode arrays close to the modiolus, none of the three perimodiolar designs investigated fulfilled satisfactorily all three criteria of being easy, safe, and a traumatic to implant.
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    Generalisation of tactile perceptual skills to new context following tactile-alone word recognition training with the Tickle Talker
    Galvin, Karyn L. ; Blamey, Peter J. ; Cowan, Robert S. C. ; Oerlemans, Michael ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2000)
    Abstract not available due to copyright.
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    Improved sound processing for cochlear implants
    James, C.J. ; Just, Y. ; Knight, M.R. ; Martin, L.F.A. ; McKay, C.M. ; Plant, K.L. ; Tari, S. ; Vandali, A.E. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; Cowan, R.S.C. ; McDermott, H. J. ; Blamey, P. J. ; Dawson, P. ; Fearn, R. A. ; Grayden, D. B. ; Henshall, K. R. ( 2002)
    Four signal processing schemes currently under development aim to improve the perception of sounds/ especially speech, for children and adults using the Nucleus cochlear implant system. The schemes are (1) fast-acting input-signal compression, (2) Adaptive Dynamic Range Optimisation (ADRO), (3) TESM, a scheme that emphasises transients in signals, and (4) DRSP, a strategy that applies different stimulation rates to selected sets of electrodes.
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    A comparative study of phase-contrast and conventional x-ray imaging in human temporal bone samples
    XU, JIN ; TYKOCINSKI, MICHAEL ; Saunders, E. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; Cowan, R. ( 2001)
    This study compared a new x-ray modality, phase-contrast radiography, with conventional radiography for imaging in human temporal bones and also investigated its potential application in the development of electrode arrays for advanced cochlear implants. Nucleus standard electrode arrays and peri-modiolar Contourn.4 electrode arrays were implanted into the cochleae of 10 human temporal bones. Both conventional and phase-contrast radiographs were taken of ~ach temporal bon~. The phase-contrast radiographs showed significant improvements over conventional radiographs in the detail of temporal bone images. These improvements included enhanced contrast at the edge of canal type features, inherent image magnification, higher spatial resolution, and ability to use detectors such as Imaging Plates. The results demonstrate that phase-contrast imaging can have important advantages in visualisation of anatomical details of both the inner ear structures and the microelectrode. It can provide a clearer definition of electrode location in relation to cochlear walls. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying phase-contrast radiography to studies of the human temporal bone. However, its usefulness in the imaging of larger objects or perhaps even with patients in a clinical setting will require further investigation.
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    Application of advanced radiographic technology in cochlear implant research
    XU, JIN ; TYKOCINSKI, MICHAEL ; Saunders, E. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; Cowan, R. ( 2001)
    The effective development of peri-modiolar or other advanced electrode arrays for cochlear implants requires detailed analysis of the insertion procedure and electrode positioning in the cochlea. Routine x-ray techniques cannot provide sufficient detail to meet this need. A new micro-focus x-ray imaging system has been built for our research. The system consists of a x-ray tube with a sub 10-micron focal spot mounted below an adjustable work surface and an image intensifier placed approximately 100 cm above the x-ray aperture. A variety of intracochlear electrode arrays and human temporal bones were studied using this system. The micro-focus x-ray imaging system allows for micro-fluoroscopy to visualise the real time implantation procedure. It also enables capturing of images onto reusable phosphor imaging plates or films for subsequent viewing or analysis. Images are produced at up to 95 times magnification with superior resolution and enhanced contrast. This new radiographic technology plays an important role in development of safe and effective advanced intracochlear electrode arrays.
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    Potential applications of a small and high surface area platinum electrode as an implanted impedance bio-sensor or recording electrode.
    Duan, Yvonne Y. ; Millard, Rodney E. ; Tykocinski, Michael. ; Lui, Xugang ; Clark, Graeme M. ; COWAN, ROBERT ( 2001)
    A small Platinum (Pt) electrode (geometric area: -0.43 mm2) was treated in an electrochemical etching process, to produce a highly porous columnar thin layer (-600 nm) on the surface of the electrode. The modified Pt electrode (Pt-p) showed similar electrical properties to a platinum-black electrode but with high mechanical integrity. Previous studies of chronic stimulation had also shown good biocompatibility and surface stability over several months implantation. This paper discusses the potential applications of the modified electrode as an implanted bio-sensor: (1) as a recording electrode compared to an untreated Pt electrode. (2) as a probe in detecting electrical characteristics of living biological material adjacent to the electrode in vivo, which may correlate to inflammation or trauma repair. Results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) revealed much lower electrode interface polarisation impedance, reduced overall electrode impedance, and a largely constant impedance above 100 Hz for the Pt-p electrode compared with untreated Pt electrodes. This provides a platform for recording biological events with low noise interference. Results of A.C. impedance spectroscopy of the high surface area electrode only reflect changes in the surrounding biological environment in the frequency range (1 kHz to 100kHz), interference from electrode polarisation impedance can be neglected. The results imply that the surface-modified electrode is a good candidate for application to implantable biosensors for detecting bio-electric events. The modification procedure and its high surface area concept could have application to a smart MEMS device or microelectrode.