Graeme Clark Collection

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    Fast inhibition alters first spike timing in auditory brainstem neurons
    Paolini, AG ; Clarey, JC ; Needham, K ; Clark, GM (AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC, 2004-10-01)
    Within the first processing site of the central auditory pathway, inhibitory neurons (D stellate cells) broadly tuned to tonal frequency project on narrowly tuned, excitatory output neurons (T stellate cells). The latter is thought to provide a topographic representation of sound spectrum, whereas the former is thought to provide lateral inhibition that improves spectral contrast, particularly in noise. In response to pure tones, the overall discharge rate in T stellate cells is unlikely to be suppressed dramatically by D stellate cells because they respond primarily to stimulus onset and provide fast, short-duration inhibition. In vivo intracellular recordings from the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) showed that, when tones were presented above or below the characteristic frequency (CF) of a T stellate neuron, they were inhibited during depolarization. This resulted in a delay in the initial action potential produced by T stellate cells. This ability of fast inhibition to alter the first spike timing of a T stellate neuron was confirmed by electrically activating the D stellate cell pathway that arises in the contralateral cochlear nucleus. Delay was also induced when two tones were presented: one at CF and one outside the frequency response area of the T stellate neuron. These findings suggest that the traditional view of lateral inhibition within the VCN should incorporate delay as one of its principle outcomes.
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    Optimizing dynamic range in children using the nucleus cochlear implant
    Dawson, PW ; Decker, JA ; Psarros, CE (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2004-06-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of the preprocessing scheme "Adaptive Dynamic Range Optimization" (ADRO) in children using Nucleus cochlear implants. Previous research with adults indicates improved speech perception in quiet and improved sound quality in everyday listening environments with the ADRO scheme. DESIGN: Children were given 4 wk of take-home experience with ADRO, with a minimum of 2 wk in which ADRO was "locked-in." After 1 wk of ADRO use and again after 4 wk of ADRO use, Bench-Kowal-Bamford (BKB) sentence perception in quiet at a low input level of 50 dB SPL (unweighted root mean square) and sentence perception in noise were compared with the child's everyday (Standard) program and the ADRO program. Children also rated the loudness of a variety of environmental sounds and indicated which program provided the best hearing in a variety of everyday listening situations. RESULTS: On average, BKB sentence perception in quiet at 50 dB SPL was significantly better with the ADRO program compared with the Standard program. The group mean improvement was 8.60%. Similarly, group mean scores for BKB sentences presented at 65 dB SPL in multitalker babble were significantly higher with the ADRO program (an improvement of 6.87%). The ADRO program was the preferred program in 46% of the listening situations, whereas the Standard program was preferred in 26% of situations. Everyday sounds were not unacceptably loud with ADRO. CONCLUSIONS: There was an ADRO benefit for this group of children in quiet and in noise. These findings suggest that young children would benefit from the ADRO programming option being locked in along with other processor settings in the SPrint processor once their MAP levels have stabilized. Some older children and teenagers may choose to use ADRO selectively for specific listening situations.
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    Effects of intracochlear factors on spiral ganglion cells and auditory brain stem response after long-term electrical stimulation in deafened kittens
    Araki, Susumu ; Kawano, Atsushi ; Seldon, H. Lee ; Shepherd, Robert K. ; Funasaka, Sotaro ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2000)
    Using an animal model, we have studied the response of the auditory brain stem to cochlear implantation and the effect of intracochlear factors on this response. Neonatally, pharmacologically deafened cats (100 to more than 180 days old) were implanted with a 4-electrode array in both cochleas. Then, the left cochlea of each cat was electrically stimulated for total periods of up to 1000 hours. After a terminal 14C-2-deoxyglucose (2DG) experiment, the fraction of the right inferior colliculus with a significant accumulation of 2DG label was calculated. Using 3-dimensional computer-aided reconstruction, we examined the cochleas of these animals for spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival and intracochlear factors such as electrode positions, degeneration of the organ of Corti, and the degree of fibrosis of the scala tympani. The distribution of each parameter was calculated along the organ of Corti from the basal end. There was a positive correlation between SGC survival and the level of fibrosis in the scala tympani, and a negative correlation between SGC survival and the degree of organ of Corti degeneration. Finally, there was a negative correlation between the 2DG-labeled inferior colliculus volume fraction and the degree of fibrosis, particularly in the 1-mm region nearest the pair of electrodes, and presumably in the basal turn.
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    Electrode discrimination by early-deafened subjects using the Cochlear Limited multiple electrode cochlear implant
    Busby, P. A. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2000)
    Objective: The aims of this study were to determine whether electrode discrimination by early-deafened subjects using the Cochlear Limited prosthesis varied at different locations on the electrode array, was influenced by the effects of auditory deprivation and experience with electric stimulation, and was related to speech perception. Design: Difference limens for electrode discrimination were measured in 16 early-deafened subjects at three positions on the array: electrodes 18 (apical), 14 (mid), and 8 (basal). Electrodes were stimulated using random variations in current level to minimize the influence of loudness cues. Assessed were correlations between the difference limens, subject variables related to auditory deprivation (age at onset of deafness, duration of deafness, and age at implantation) and auditory experience (duration of implant use and the total time period of auditory experience), and speech perception scores from two closed-set and two open-set tests. Results: The average difference limens across the three positions were less than two electrodes for 75%, of subjects, with average limens between 2 and 6.5 electrodes for the remaining 25% of subjects. Significant differences across the three positions were found for 69% of subjects. The average limens and those at the basal position positively correlated with variables related to auditory deprivation, with larger limens for subjects implanted at a later age and with a longer duration of deafness. The average limens and those at the apical position negatively correlated with closed-set speech perception scores, with lower scores for subjects with larger limens, but not with open-set scores. Speech scores also negatively correlated with variables related to auditory deprivation. Conclusions: These findings showed that early-deafened subjects were generally successful in electrode discrimination although performance varied across the array for over half the subjects. Discrimination performance was influenced by the effects of auditory deprivation, and both electrode discrimination and variables related to auditory deprivation influenced closed-set speech perception.
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    Meningitis after cochlear implantation: the risk is low, and preventive measures can reduce this further
    Wei, Benjamin P. C. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; O'Leary, Stephen J. ; Shepherd, Robert K. ; Robins-Browne, Roy M. ( 2007)
    Since the 1980s, more than 80 000 people have received cochlear implants worldwide. These implants are designed to enable people who are severely or profoundly deaf to experience sound and speech. Since 1990, implantation has become standard treatment for people who cannot communicate effectively despite well fitted hearing aids. Children who are deaf when they are born can perceive sound and learn to speak if they receive cochlear implants at a young age (ideally under 18 months). The use of cochlear implants has been thought to be safe. But since 2002 the number of patients with meningitis related to cochlear implantation has increased worldwide. Mortality and neurological complications after meningitis are high. We need to investigate the reasons for this and look at measures to reduce them.
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    Threshold shift: effects of cochlear implantation on the risk of pneumococcal meningitis
    Wei, Benjamin P. C. ; Shepherd, Robert K. ; Robins-Browne, Roy M. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; O'Leary, Stephen J. ( 2007)
    Unavailable due to copyright.
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    Effects of inner ear trauma on the risk of pneumococcal meningitis
    Wei, Benjamin P. C. ; Shepherd, Robert K. ; Robins-Browne, Roy M. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; O'LEARY, STEPHEN ( 2007)
    Objective: To examine the risk of pneumococcal meningitis in healthy rats that received a severe surgical trauma to the modiolus and osseous spiral lamina or the standard insertion technique for acute cochlear implantation. Design: Interventional animal studies. Subjects: Fifty-four otologically normal adult Hooded- Wistar rats. Interventions: Fifty-four rats (18 of which received a cochleostomy alone; 18, a cochleostomy and acute cochlear implantation using standard surgical techniques; and 18, a cochleostomy followed by severe inner ear trauma) were infected 4 weeks after surgery with Streptococcus pneumoniae via 3 different routes (hematogenous, middle ear, and inner ear) to represent all potential routes of bacterial infection from the upper respiratory tract to the meninges in cochlear implant recipients with meningitis. Results: Severe trauma to the osseous spiral lamina and modiolus increased the risk of pneumococcal meningitis when the bacteria were given via the middle or inner ear (Fisher exact test, P<.05). However, the risk of meningitis did not change when the bacteria were given via the hematogenous route. Acute electrode insertion did not alter the risk of subsequent pneumococcal meningitis for any route of infection. Conclusions: Severe inner ear surgical trauma to the osseous spiral lamina and modiolus can increase the risk of pneumococcal meningitis. Therefore, every effort should be made to ensure that cochlear implant design and insertion technique cause minimal trauma to the bony structures of the inner ear to reduce the risk of pneumococcalmeningitis.
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    Assessment of the protective effect of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing meningitis after cochlear implantation
    Wei, Benjamin P. C. ; Robins-Browne, Roy M. ; Shepherd, Robert K. ; AZZOPARDI, KRISTY ; Clark, Graeme M. ; O'Leary, Stephen J. ( 2007)
    Objectives: To examine if a 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) reduces the risk of meningitis in healthy rats after cochlear implantation. Design: Interventional animal study. Interventions: Thirty-six rats (18 immunized and 18 unimmunized) received cochlear implantations and were then infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae via 3 different routes (hematogenous, middle ear, and inner ear) in numbers sufficient to induce meningitis. Results: The rats with implants that received PPV23 were protected from meningitis when the bacteria were delivered via the hematogenous and middle-ear routes (Fisher exact test P<.05). However, the protective effect of the vaccine in the rats with implants was only moderate when the bacteria were inoculated directly into the inner ear. Conclusions: Our animal model clearly demonstrates that immunization can protect healthy rats with a cochlear implant from meningitis caused by a vaccine-covered serotype. This finding supports the notion that all current and future implant recipients should be vaccinated against S pneumoniae.
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    Implant design and development
    GRAYDEN, D ; CLARK, G ; Cooper, H ; Craddock, L (Wiley - John Wiley & Sons, 2006)
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    Inner ear implants
    Clark, Graeme M. (Dekker, 2004)
    The cochlear implant is an electronic device that brings useful hearing to severely to profoundly deaf people through multiple-channel electrical stimulation of the auditory nerves in the inner ear. This is required if their inner ears are so badly damaged by injury and disease, or so inadequately developed, that they cannot provide sufficient hearing for communication, even when the sound is amplified with a hearing aid. By stimulating the nerve directly with patterns of electrical pulses, the implant bypasses the normal function of the sense organ of hearing in the inner ear to partially reproduce the coding of sound. It consists of a wearable speech processor that picks up sound with a microphone, analyzes the signal, and then sends it by radio waves to the implanted receiver stimulator, which decodes the message and stimulates the electrode wires inserted into the inner ear.