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ItemCochlear implantsClark, Graeme M. (Springer, 2003)Over the past two decades there has been remarkable progress in the clinical treatment of profound hearing loss for individuals unable to derive significant benefit from hearing aids. Now many individuals who were unable to communicate effectively prior to receiving a cochlear implant are able to do so, even over the telephone without any supplementary visual cues from lip reading. The earliest cochlear implant devices used only a single active channel for transmitting acoustic information to the auditory system and were not very effective in providing the sort of spectrotemporal information required for spoken communication. This situation began to change about 20 years ago upon introduction of implant devices with several active stimulation sites. The addition of these extra channels of information has revolutionized the treatment of the profoundly hearing impaired. Many individuals with such implants are capable of nearly normal spoken communication, whereas 20 years ago the prognosis for such persons would have been extremely bleak. (From Introduction)
ItemCochlear implants for adults and childrenClark, Graeme M. (Martin Dunitz, 2002)Cochlear implants which use multiple-electrode speech-processing strategies are now established clinical entity for children and adults, as a result, preoperative selection and (re)habilitation are key issues. It is hard to realize that it was only in the 1960s and 1970s when many scientists and clinicians said that successful cochlear implants were not possible in the foreseeable future. The questions that had to be addressed by a multi disciplinary research effort are discussed, and the solutions achieved from the University of Melbourne's perspective are presented. However, the main aim of this chapter is to focus on preoperative selection, and (re)habilitation, including the results obtained. These issues are discussed primarily with reference to data from the University of Melbourne's Cochlear Implant Clinic at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital. As this is a book on audiological medicine only, an overview of surgical principles is presented. The surgical management of the patient is, of course, very important, so for more details the reader is referred elsewhere. Cochlear implantation has also been the subject of quite intense ethical debate, particularly over its use for children. For this reason, a discussion of ethical issues is included. Finally, the chapter concludes with a vision of research in the next Millennium.