Graeme Clark Collection

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    The role of radiographic phase-contrast imaging in the development of intracochlear electrode arrays
    XU, JIN ; Stevenson, Andrew W. ; Gao, Dachao ; TYKOCINSKI, MICHAEL ; LAWRENCE, DAVID ; Wilkins, Stephen W. ; Clark, Graeme M. ; Saunders, Elaine ; Cowan, Robert S. ( 2001)
    Objective: This study describes the application of a new radiographic imaging modality, phase-contrast radiography, to in vitro human temporal bone imaging and investigates it use in the development of new electrode arrays for cochlear implants. Background: The development of perimodiolar electrode arrays for cochlear implants requires detailed information from postoperative radiologic assessment on the position of the array in relation to the cochlear structures. Current standard radiographic techniques provide only limited details. Materials and Methods: Nucleus standard electrode arrays and perimodiolar Contour electrode arrays were implanted into the scala tympani of 11 human temporal bones. Both conventional and phase-contrast radiographs were taken of each temporal bone for comparative purposes. Results: Phase-contrast imaging provides better visulization of anatomic details of the inner ear and of the structure of the intracochlear electrode array, and better definition of electrode location in relation to cochlear walls. Conclusion: Phase-contrast radiography offers significant improvement over conventional radiography in images of in vitro human temporal bones. It seems to be a valuable tool in the development of intracochlear electrode arrays and cochlear implant research. However, this new radiographic technique still requires certain computational and physics challenges to be addressed before its clinical use can be established.
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    The Contour electrode array: Safety study and initial patient trials of a new perimodiolar design
    Tykocinski, M ; Saunders, E ; Cohen, LT ; Treaba, C ; Briggs, RJS ; Gibson, P ; Clark, GM ; Cowan, RSC (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2001-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of these studies was to investigate the insertion properties and safety of a new intracochlear perimodiolar electrode array design (Contour). BACKGROUND: An electrode array positioned close to the neural elements could be expected to reduce stimulation thresholds and might potentially reduce channel interaction. METHODS: Two sequential studies were conducted. In study 1, the Contour electrode array was inserted in 12 human temporal bones. After cochlear surface preparation, the position of the array was noted and the basilar membrane was examined for insertion damage. On the basis of the outcome of this temporal bone study, study 2 investigated the Contour array, mounted on a Nucleus CI-24 M device and implanted in three adult patients. RESULTS: Study I showed that in 10 temporal bones, the Contour array was positioned close to the modiolus, and the basilar membrane was intact. In the two remaining bones, the arrays had pierced the basilar membrane and were positioned in the scala vestibuli apical to the penetration. Statistical analysis showed an equivalent probability of insertion-induced damage of the two array designs. In study 2, image analysis indicated that the Contour electrodes were positioned closer to the modiolus than the standard Nucleus straight array. Lower T and C levels, but higher impedance values, were recorded from electrodes close to the modiolus. Initial speech perception data showed that all patients gained useful open-set speech perception, two patients achieving scores of 100% on sentence material 3 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal bone studies showed the Contour electrode array to be generally positioned closer to the modiolus than the standard Nucleus straight array, and to have an equivalent probability of causing insertion-induced damage.
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    Comparison of electrode position in the human cochlea using various perimodiolar electrode arrays
    TYKOCINSKI, MICHAEL ; Cohen, Lawrence T. ; Pyman, Brian C. ; Roland (Jr), Thomas ; Treaba, Claudiu ; PALAMARA, JOSEPH ; Dahm, Markus C. ; Shepherd, Robert K. ; XU, JIN ; Cowan, Robert S. ; Cohen, Noel L. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2000)
    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the insertion properties and intracochlear trajectories of three perimodiolar electrode array designs and to compare these designs with the standard Cochlear /Melbourne array. Background: Advantages to be expected of a perimodiolar electrode array include both a reduction in stimulus thresholds and an increase in dynamic range, resulting in a more localized stimulation pattern of the spiral ganglion cells, reduced power consumption, and, therefore, longer speech processor battery life. Methods: The test arrays were implanted into human temporal bones. Image analysis was performed on a radiograph taken after the insertion. The cochleas were then histologically processed with the electrode array in situ, and the resulting sections were subsequently assessed for position of the electrode array as well as insertion-related intracochlear damage. Results: All perimodiolar electrode arrays were inserted deeper and showed trajectories that were generally closer to the modiolus compared with the standard electrode array. However, although the precurved array designs did not show significant insertion trauma, the method of insertion needed improvement. After insertion of the straight electrode array with positioner, signs of severe insertion trauma in the majority o fimplanted cochleas were found. Conclusions: Although it was possible to position the electrode arrays close to the modiolus, none of the three perimodiolar designs investigated fulfilled satisfactorily all three criteria of being easy, safe, and a traumatic to implant.
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    Generalisation of tactile perceptual skills to new context following tactile-alone word recognition training with the Tickle Talker
    Galvin, Karyn L. ; Blamey, Peter J. ; Cowan, Robert S. C. ; Oerlemans, Michael ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 2000)
    Abstract not available due to copyright.
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    The effect of language knowledge on speech perception: what are we really assessing?
    Sarant, Julia Z. ; Blamey, Peter J. ; Cowan, Robert S. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1997)
    Objective: The authors examined whether open-set speech perception scores are limited by knowledge of vocabulary and syntax and further considered whether remediation of vocabulary and syntax will increase open-set speech perception scores. Study Design: This was a repeated-measures study design in the setting of a primary (elementary) school for the hearing impaired. Patients: The study population was composed of three hearing-impaired children using Nucleus 22-channel cochlear implant. Intervention: Intervention used was language remediation sessions. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measures were assessment of auditory-alone speech perception benefit using open-set words and sentences and assessment of syntactic knowledge using the Test of Syntactic Ability. Outcome measures were applied before and after remediation. Results: Child 1 and child 2 showed a significant postremediation improvement in their overall scores on the Test of Syntactic Ability and in their ability to perceive words learned during remediation. Child I and child 2 also showed a significant improvement in their scores on a modified Bamford-Kowal-Bench open-set sentence test, which specifically targeted grammatical constructs trained in remediation sessions. Conclusions: Remediation of language knowledge deficits significantly improved open-set speech perception for two children, suggesting a need to include language remediation in cochlear implant habilitation programs.
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    Speech perception in implanted children: influence of preoperative residual hearing on outcomes [Abstract]
    Cowan, R. S. C. ; Barker, E. J. ; Pegg, P. ; Dettman, S. ; Rennie, M. ; Galvin, K. ; Meskin, T. ; Rance, G. ; Cody, K. ; Sarant, J. ; Larratt, M. ; Latus, K. ; HOLLOW, RODNEY ; Rehn, C. ; Dowell, R. C. ; Pyman, B. ; Gibson, W. P. R. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1998)
    Since the first child was implanted with the Nucleus 22-channel prosthesis in Melbourne in 1985, several thousand children world-wide have now benefitted from this technology. More effective paediatric assessment and management procedures have now been developed, allowing cochlear implants to be offered to children under the age of 2 years. Improvements in speech processing strategy have also been implemented in the Nucleus implant system, resulting in increased mean speech perception benefits for implanted adults. Although a range of performance on formal measures of hearing, speech or language has been reported for children using implants, results from the first decade of implant experience consistently show that significant benefits are available to children receiving their implant at an early age. Reported speech perception results for implanted children show that a considerable proportion (60%) of paediatric patients in the Melbourne and Sydney clinics are able to understand some open-set speech using electrical stimulation alone. These results, and the upward trend of mean speech perception benefits shown for postlinguistically deafened adults have raised questions as to whether severely, or severely-to-profoundly deaf children currently using hearing aids would in fact benefit more from a cochlear implant. To investigate the potential influence of the degree of preoperative residual hearing on postoperative speech perception, results for all implanted children in the Melbourne and Sydney cochlear implant programs were analysed. Results showed that as a group, children with higher levels of preoperative residual hearing were consistently more likely to achieve open-set speech perception benefits. Potential factors in this finding could be higher levels of ganglion cell survival or greater patterning of the auditory pathways using conventional hearing aids prior to implantation. Conversely, children with the least preoperative residual hearing were less predictable, with some children achieving open-set perception, and others showing more limited closed-set benefits to perception. For these children, it is likely that preoperative residual hearing is of less significance than other factors in outcomes.
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    Within-subject comparison of speech perception benefits for congenitally deaf adolescents with an electrotactile speech processor and a cochlear implant
    SARANT, JULIA ; COWAN, ROBERT ; BLAMEY, PETER ; GALVIN, KARYN ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1996)
    This study assessed speech perception benefits for three congenitally deaf adolescents who used an electrotactile speech processor (Tickle Talker™) and subsequently went on to use a Nucleus Minisystem 22 cochlear implant. Both devices provided significant and comparable benefits for all children in the device plus lipreading condition. All children benefited from the additional information provided by either the Tickle Talker™ or the cochlear implant, and were able to perceive speech information with these devices that was not available through either aided residual hearing or lipreading. None of the three children were able to understand open-set words or sentences using either hearing aids alone or Tickle Talker™ alone, without the aid of lipreading. Two of the children showed significant open-set speech perception benefits while using their cochlear implant alone.
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    Introduction: International Cochlear Implant, Speech and Hearing Symposium - Melbourne 1994
    Clark, Graeme M. ; Cowan, Robert S. C. ( 1995)
    The International Cochlear Implant Speech and Hearing Symposium - Melbourne 1994 covered a wide range of presentations in a number of disciplines. The scientific program included 287 oral presentations and 40 posters, presented to a total of 456 delegates from 38 countries. This was a considerable expansion in the number and range of presentations from the first international conference held in Melbourne in 1985 (Ann Otol Rhinal Laryngal 1987;96[suppl 128]). This growth highlights the importance of the discipline and the advances being made in this area.
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    The progress of children using the multichannel cochlear implant in Melbourne
    Cowan, R. S. C. ; Dowell, R. C. ; Hollow, R. ; Dettman, S. J. ; Rance, G. ; Barker, E. J. ; Sarant, J. Z. ; Galvin, K. L. ; Webb, R. C. ; Pyman, B. C. ; Cousins, V. C. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1995)
    Multi-channel cochlear implantation in children began in Australia in 1985 and there are now close to 4000 profoundly deaf children and adolescents using the Australian implant system around the world. The aim of the implant procedure is to provide adequate hearing for speech and language development through auditory input. This contrasts with the situation for adults with acquired deafness where the cochlear implant aims to restore hearing for someone with well-developed auditory processing and language skills. As with adults, results vary over a wide range for children using the Multi-channel implant. Many factors have been suggested that may contribute to differences in speech perception for implanted children. In an attempt to better understand these factors, the speech perception results for children implanted in Melbourne were reviewed and subjected to statistical analysis. This has indicated that the amount of experience with the implant and the length of sensory deprivation are strongly correlated with perceptual results. This means that younger children are likely to perform better with an implant and that a number of years of experience are required for children to reach their full potential. The results have also indicated that educational placement and management play a crucial role in children reaching their potential. Overall, 60% of the children and adolescents in the study have reached a level of open-set speech understanding using the cochlear implant without lipreading.
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    Within-subject comparison of speech perception benefits with a multiple-channel cochlear implant and tactile device
    Sarant, J. Z. ; Cowan, R. S. C. ; Blamey, P. J. ; Galvin, K. L. ; Clark, Graeme M. ( 1995)
    In order to adequately advise prospective cochlear implant patients and their families, a clinician must have a good knowledge of the potential for particular individuals to benefit from cochlear implants and other alternatives.