Minerva Elements Records

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    A matter of time? Institutional timescapes and gendered inequalities in the transition from education to employment in Australia
    Craig, L ; Ravn, S ; Churchill, B ; Valenzuela, MR (SAGE Publications, 2022-01-01)
    This article explores why women miss out in the transition from the educational system to the labour market. Using nationally representative longitudinal data (2001–18) from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, we compare how long after graduation it takes men and women with tertiary qualifications (n = 2030) to achieve key labour market milestones: (1) getting a full-time job; (2) getting a permanent contract; (3) earning an average wage; (4) finding a job that matches their skill level. We find significant gender differences in reaching these milestones, confirming that time is a critical dimension for understanding gendered inequalities in the returns to education. We attribute findings to incompatible ‘timescapes’ across the institutions of education, family and employment. The more flexible timescape of education allows women to succeed, but the inflexible timescape of employment (particularly when combined with family responsibilities) impedes them from turning educational achievement into labour market progress.
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    Understanding Older Adults' Participation in Online Social Activities
    Zhao, W ; Kelly, RM ; Rogerson, MJ ; Waycott, J (Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022-11-07)
    Restrictions arising from the COVID-19 pandemic have limited opportunities for older people to participate in face-to-face organised social activities. Many organisations moved these activities online, but little is known about older adults' experiences of participating in those activities. This paper reports an investigation of older adults' experiences of participating in social activities that they used to attend in-person, but which were moved online because of strict lockdown restrictions. We conducted in-depth interviews with 40 older adults living independently (alone or with others). Findings from a reflexive thematic analysis show that online social activities were important during the pandemic for not only staying connected to other people but also helping older adults stay engaged in meaningful activities, including arts, sports, cultural, and civic events. Online activities provided older adults with opportunities to connect with like-minded people; share care, encouragement, and support; participate in civic agendas; learn knowledge and develop new skills; and experience entertainment, distraction, and mental stimulation. Our participants had diverse perceptions of the transition from in-person to online social activities. Based on the findings, we present a taxonomy of multi-layered meaningful activities for older adults' digital social participation and highlight implications for future technology design.
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    Characterization of Fe(III)-binding peptides from pea protein hydrolysates targeting enhanced iron bioavailability
    Zhang, YY ; Stockmann, R ; Ng, K ; Broadbent, JA ; Stockwell, S ; Suleria, H ; Karishma Shaik, NE ; Unnithan, RR ; Ajlouni, S (Elsevier BV, 2023-03)
    This investigation aimed to characterize enzymatically-derived pea peptides that act as solubilizing agents to enhance Fe(III) bioaccessibility. The pea hydrolysates were found to have an iron-binding capacity of 5.3 mg/g lyophilized powder. The Fe(III)-binding peptides were separated by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), and then sequenced using tandem MS following an in-solution tryptic digestion. Results revealed that the Fe(III)-binding fraction was rich in Glu, Asn, Lys and Leu, and the peptides primarily belonged to the Vicilin family. After screening based on the peptides’ relative abundance and physicochemical properties, 15 novel peptides below 1.5 kDa were identified as potential candidates for enhancement of iron bioavailability. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the hydrolysate-iron complex suggested that the principal sites of peptide binding corresponded primarily to the carboxylate groups, with amine I and II groups also evident.
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    South Borneo as an ancient Sprachbund area
    Adelaar, A (UNIV INDONESIA, FAC HUMANITIES, 2021-01-01)
    In South and Central Kalimantan (southern Borneo) there are some unusual linguistic features shared among languages which are adjacent but do not belong to the same genetic linguistic subgroups. These languages are predominantly Banjar Malay (a Malayic language), Ngaju (a West Barito language), and Ma’anyan (a Southeast Barito language). The same features also appear to some degree in Malagasy, a Southeast Barito language in East Africa. The shared linguistic features are the following ones: a grammaticalized form of the originally Malay noun buah ‘fruit’ expressing affectedness, nasal spreading in which N- not only nasalizes the onset of the first syllable but also a *y in the next syllable, a non-volitional marker derived from the Banjar Malay prefix combination ta-pa- (related to Indonesian tr- + pr-), and the change from Proto Malayo-Polynesian *s to h (or Malagasy Ø). These features have their origins in the various members of the language configuration outlined above and form a Sprachbund or “Linguistic Area”. The concept of Linguistic Area is weak and difficult to define. Lyle Campbell (2002) considers it little else than borrowing or diffusion and writes it off as “no more than [a] post hoc attempt [...] to impose geographical order on varied conglomerations of [...] borrowings”. While mindful of its shortcomings, the current author still uses the concept as a useful tool to distinguish between
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    Regular sound change: the evidence of a single example
    Adelaar, A (Faculty of Humanities. University of Indonesi, 2018-01-01)
    The Neogrammarians of the Leipzig School introduced the principle that sound changes are regular and that this regularity is without exceptions. At least as a working hypothesis, this principle has remained the basis of the comparative method up to this day. In the first part of this paper, I give a short account of how historical linguists have defended this principle and have dealt with apparent counter evidence. In the second part, I explore if a sound change can be regular if it is attested in one instance only. I conclude that it is, provided that the concomitant phonetic (and phonotactic) evidence supporting it is also based on regularity. If the single instance of a sound change is the result of developments which are all regular in themselves, it is still in line with the regularity principle.
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    The Lisbon book of pantuns
    Castro, I ; Cardoso, HC ; Koster, G ; Adelaar, A ; Baxter, A ; Castro, I (Imprensa Nacional, 2019)
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    Grammar notes on Siraya, an extinct Formosan language
    Adelaar, KA (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-12-01)
    This is an attempt to unravel the grammar of a gospel text in Siraya, an extinct West Formosan language. It includes a discussion of the historical setting, the spelling, phonological features, function words, relation markers, morphosyntax of the verb, and the use of deictic verbs as prepositions. Regarding verbal morphosyntax, special attention is given to case marking suffixes, verbal classifiers, compound verbs, and anticipating sequences. Verbal classifiers are lexical elements prefixed to a root (a verb, adverb, or noun) with which they constitute the overall meaning of the resulting verb (mattäy- ‘talking, saying’ + vli ‘reciprocating, doing in return’  mattäy-vli ‘to answer’; mattäy- + rĭx ‘mind’  mattäy- rĭx ‘talk to oneself’). Compound verb constructions are constructions in which auxiliaries assume the functions of adverbs in English. These auxiliaries form an open class and are in fact the head of the verb phrase, as they carry most of the marking. An anticipating sequence is an element of a verb that is prefixed to the preceding auxiliary.
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    Austronesian Linguistics
    Adelaar, K ; Aronoff, M (Oxford University Press, 2017)
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    Agglomeration Regimes of Particles under a Linear Laminar Flow: A Numerical Study
    Qian, Y ; Usher, SP ; Scales, PJ ; Stickland, AD ; Alexiadis, A (MDPI, 2022-06-01)
    In this work, a combined smoothed particle hydrodynamics and discrete element method (SPH-DEM) model was proposed to model particle agglomeration in a shear flow. The fluid was modeled with the SPH method and the solid particles with DEM. The system was governed by three fundamental dimensionless groups: the Reynolds number Re (1.5~150), which measured the effect of the hydrodynamics; the adhesion number Ad (6 × 10−5~6 × 10−3), which measured the inter-particle attraction; and the solid fraction α, which measured the concentration of particles. Based on these three dimensionless groups, several agglomeration regimes were found. Within these regimes, the aggregates could have different sizes and shapes that went from long thread-like structures to compact spheroids. The effect of the particle–particle interaction model was also investigated. The results were combined into ‘agglomeration maps’ that allowed for a quick determination of the agglomerate type once α, Re, Ad were known.
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    Digital Detection of Olive Oil Rancidity Levels and Aroma Profiles Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Low-Cost Electronic Nose and Machine Learning Modelling
    Viejo, CG ; Fuentes, S (MDPI, 2022-05-01)
    The success of the olive oil industry depends on provenance and quality-trait consistency affecting the consumers' acceptability/preference and purchase intention. Companies rely on laboratories to analyze samples to assess consistency within the production chain, which may be time-consuming, cost-restrictive, and untimely obtaining results, making the process more reactive than predictive. This study proposed implementing digital technologies using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and a novel low-cost e-nose to assess the level of rancidity and aromas in commercial extra-virgin olive oil. Four different olive oils were spiked with three rancidity levels (N = 17). These samples were evaluated using gas-chromatography-mass-spectroscopy, NIR, and an e-nose. Four machine learning models were developed to classify olive oil types and rancidity (Model 1: NIR inputs; Model 2: e-nose inputs) and predict the peak area of 16 aromas (Model 3: NIR; Model 4: e-nose inputs). The results showed high accuracies (Models 1–2: 97% and 87%; Models 3–4: R = 0.96 and 0.93). These digital technologies may change companies from a reactive to a more predictive production of food/beverages to secure product quality and acceptability.