Minerva Elements Records

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    In vitro model for natural tolerance to self-antigens. Inhibition of the development of surface-immunoglobulin-negative lymphocytes into T-dependent responsive B cells by antigen.
    Teale, JM ; Layton, JE ; Nossal, GJ (Rockefeller University Press, 1979-08-01)
    Neonatal and adult splenic cell suspensions were labeled with fluorescein isothiocynate-anti-Ig and fractionated into surface-immunoglobulin- (s-Ig) positive and s-Ig-negative subpopulations by the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The subpopulations were then tested by splenic focus assay for both frequency and tolerance susceptibility of clonable 2,4,-dinitrophenol (DNP) precursors. It was shown that both adult, and neonatal, s-Ig-negative subsets contained clonable DNP-specific B-cell precursors. However, because these precursors result in fewer clones secreting IgG, they appeared to be less mature than the s-Ig-positive precursors. In the absence of helper T cells, it was found that exposure of s-Ig-negative lymphocytes to tolerogen during the process in which they were acquiring surface receptors resulted in nearly total abrogation of potential DNP clones. This finding provides compelling evidence for clonal abortion.
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    Secretion of prostaglandins as bone-resorbing agents by renal cortical carcinoma in culture.
    Atkins, D ; Ibbotson, KJ ; Hillier, K ; Hunt, NH ; Hammonds, JC ; Martin, TJ (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1977-11)
    Fragments of human renal carcinoma tissue have been co-cultured with mouse calvaria. In 9/13 cases significant bone resorption occurred whilst in no case did control kidney cause significant resorption. When bone resorption did occur, it could be reduced by inclusion of indomethacin in the culture medium. In some cases when theophylline was included in culture medium to prevent cyclic AMP breakdown, there was enhancement of tumour-induced bone resorption. Control studies without tumour showed that none of the experimental treatments had a direct effect on bone. Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin E (PGE) levels in pooled culture media showed that tumour fragments produced appreciable amounts of PGE, and that this production was lowered by indomethacin and increased by theophylline. It is concluded that the bone resorption induced by these tumours is due to a prostaglandin, and that prostaglandin production may be controlled by changes in cyclic AMP metabolism.
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    Calcitonin-responsive adenylate cyclase in a calcitonin-producing human cancer cell line.
    Hunt, NH ; Ellison, M ; Underwood, JC ; Martin, TJ (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1977-06)
    A calcitonin-responsive adenylate cyclase has been found in a cell line of a poorly differentiated bronchial carcinoma (BEN cells). The cells have previously been shown to secrete an immunoreactive form of calcitonin in culture. Salmon calcitonin (SCT), porcine calcitonin (PCT) and human calcitonin (CT-M) all stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in particulate preparations. CT-M sulphoxide had little effect. The concentrations of the calcitonins required for half the maximum activation of adenylate cyclase were 6-8, 18 and 90 nm respectively. SCT (30pm) and CT-M (60 pm) increased the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP from 11-2+/-0-2 (s.e.) to 18-2+/-0-2 and 16-7+/-0-2 respectively over a 2-5-min period. SCT (labelled with 125I) bound to particulate preparations of Ben cells, and competition for binding occurred with unlabelled SCT and CT-M. The concentration of SCT required for half the maximum inhibition of [125I]SCT binding was 11 nm. CT-M sulphoxide inhibited only at high concentration (3 micron). The characteristics of the adenylate cyclase response to SCT did not change over the period between cell adhesion (after subculture) and confluence. However, pre-incubation of cells for 4 h with SCT (150 nm) abolished the subsequent adenylate cyclase response of particulate preparations to further hormone. The practical difficulties encountered in purifying and quantifying the large-mol.-wt. form of CT-M secreted by BEN cells has precluded direct investigation of the potential relationship between hormone secretion and the occurrence of the calcitonin receptor. This relationship is discussed in terms of its possible biological significance.
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    Ia antigenic specificities are oligosaccharide in nature: hapten-inhibition studies.
    McKenzie, IF ; Clarke, A ; Parish, CR (Rockefeller University Press, 1977-04-01)
    We have previously reported that the Ia specificities, coded for by the I region within the H-2 complex, appear to consist predominantly of carbohydrate. This conclusion was reached by examining low molecular weight Ia-bearing oligosacharides isolated from mouse serum. We now report hapten-inhibition studies which indicate that the binding of both allogeneic and xenogeneic anti-Ia antibodies to the Ia glycoproteins found predominantly on B lymphocytes can be specifically inhibited by certain free sugars. Both inhibition assays revealed that the specificity for the following Ia antigens resides predominantly in the following sugars: (a) Ia.1: N-acetyl-D-mannosamine or related sugars; (b) Ia.3: alpha-D-galactose and related sugars; (c) Ia.7: L-fucose; and (d) Ia.15: N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It seems likely that these sugars are found at the terminal nonreducing ends of the carbohydrate portion of the Ia-bearing glycoproteins present in the lymphocyte membrane. In contrast, several public and private H-2 antigenic specificities did not appear to be sugar defined. These studies imply that at least some of the Ia genes from both the I-A and I-C subregions of the I region code for glycosyl transferases which modify oligosaccharide structure and impart specificity to the Ia antigens by alteration of their terminal sugar residues.
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    Cell to cell interaction in the immune response. 3. Chromosomal marker analysis of single antibody-forming cells in reconstituted, irradiated, or thymectomized mice.
    Nossal, GJ ; Cunningham, A ; Mitchell, GF ; Miller, JF (Rockefeller University Press, 1968-10-01)
    Two new methods are described for making chromosomal spreads of single antibody-forming cells. The first depends on the controlled rupture of cells in small microdroplets through the use of a mild detergent and application of a mechanical stress on the cell. The second is a microadaptation of the conventional Ford technique. Both methods have a success rate of over 50%, though the quality of chromosomal spreads obtained is generally not as good as with conventional methods. These techniques have been applied to an analysis of cell to cell interaction in adoptive immune responses, using the full syngeneic transfer system provided by the use of CBA and CBA/T6T6 donor-recipient combinations. When neonatally thymectomized mice were restored to adequate immune responsiveness to sheep erythrocytes by injections of either thymus cells or thoracic duct lymphocytes, it was shown that all the actual dividing antibody-forming cells were not of donor but of host origin. When lethally irradiated mice were injected with chromosomally marked but syngeneic mixtures of thymus and bone marrow cells, a rather feeble adoptive immune response ensued; all the antibody-forming cells identified were of bone marrow origin. When mixtures of bone marrow cells and thoracic duct lymphocytes were used, immune restoration was much more effective, and over three-quarters of the antibody-forming mitotic figures carried the bone marrow donor chromosomal marker. The results were deemed to be consistent with the conclusions derived in the previous paper of this series, namely that thymus contains some, but a small number only of antigen-reactive cells (ARC), bone marrow contains antibody-forming cell precursors (AFCP) but no ARC, and thoracic duct lymph contains both ARC and AFCP with a probable predominance of the former. A vigorous immune response to sheep erythrocytes probably requires a collaboration between the two cell lineages, involving proliferation first of the ARC and then of the AFCP. The results stressed that the use of large numbers of pure thoracic duct lymphocytes in adoptive transfer work could lead to good adoptive immune responses, but that such results should not be construed as evidence against cell collaboration hypotheses. Some possible further uses of single cell chromosome techniques were briefly discussed.
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    Antigens in immunity. XV. Ultrastructural features of antigen capture in primary and secondary lymphoid follicles.
    Nossal, GJ ; Abbot, A ; Mitchell, J ; Lummus, Z (Rockefeller University Press, 1968-02-01)
    This paper describes the trapping of antigen in lymphoid follicles of rat popliteal lymph nodes as revealed by electron microscopic radioautographs following injection of (125)I-labeled Salmonella adelaide flagella and other materials. The antigen was taken up vigorously, and to an approximately equal extent, by both primary and secondary follicles. The rate of uptake was faster in preimmunized than in virgin adult rats. The bulk of the antigen in follicles was extracellular, and persisted in this location for at least 3 wk. Label was most frequently found at or near the surface of fine cell processes. Many of these were branches of dendritic follicular reticular cells. Such processes interdigitated with equally fine processes of lymphocytes, creating an elaborate meshwork. In some cases, antigen was found between lymphocytes which appeared to be in close apposition. Occasionally, a few grains appeared over lymphocyte nuclei and study of serial sections suggested that this probably represented true entry of small amounts of antigen into lymphocytes. The characteristic "tingible body" macrophages (TBM) of germinal centers appeared to play only a secondary role in follicular antigen retention. They showed degrees of labeling over their phagocytic inclusions varying from negligible to moderately heavy. Moreover, follicles lacking or poor in TBM retained antigen just as effectively as those containing numerous TBM. The hypothesis is advanced that TBM may be derived from monocytes that migrate down from the circular sinus. Follicular localization of three other materials was also studied, though not in such detail. These were (125)I-HSA complexed to anti-HSA: (125)I-labeled autologous IgG; and (125)I-monomeric flagellin. All of these showed the basic features of intercellular, membrane-associated deposition noted with (125)I-flagella. The role of follicular antigen depots in immune induction is discussed. The tentative conclusion is reached that follicular antigen in a primary follicle encounters natural antibody on the surface of certain antigen-reactive lymphocytes. The resultant reaction causes blast cell transformation and eventually the genesis of a germinal center.
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    Autoradiographic studies on the immune response.I. The kinetics of plasma cell proliferation.
    NOSSAL, GJ ; MAKELA, O (Rockefeller University Press, 1962-01-01)
    The origin and growth kinetics of plasma cells have been investigated using autoradiographic labeling techniques. Rats immunized once with Salmonella flagella were given a single pulse of H(3)-thymidine 4 or 40 weeks later. 2 hours after the tracer injection, they received a secondary antigenic stimulus. When animals were sacrificed immediately only certain cells from the resting primarily immunized lymph nodes, notably large and medium lymphocytes, were labeled. Subsequent to secondary stimulation, animals were killed at intervals; nearly all the plasma cells formed within the next 5 to 6 days were labeled. They must thus have been the progeny of cells already capable of synthesizing DNA in resting nodes, most probably of large lymphocytes. Plasmacytopoiesis began with little or no lag following secondary immunization, and the number of labeled plasma cells rose exponentially between the 2nd and 4th day, with a doubling time of about 12 hours. Studies of mean grain counts of primitive cells also suggested that the generation time of plasmablasts was 12 hours or less. The hypothesis was proposed that immunological memory depended on the persistence, following primary stimulation, of a continuously dividing stem line of primitive lymphocytes, reactive at all times to further antigenic stimulation.
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    Quantitative features of a sandwich radioimmunolabeling technique for lymphocyte surface receptors.
    Nossal, GJ ; Warner, NL ; Lewis, H ; Sprent, J (Rockefeller University Press, 1972-02-01)
    The present study was designed to devise and characterize an indirect or sandwich radioimmunolabeling technique for the study of lymphocyte surface receptors of immunoglobulin nature. Mouse lymphocytes from various sources were treated by the method of Shortman et al. to remove debris and damaged cells. This was an important preliminary step, as without it, little meaning could be attached to bulk scintillation counting of labeled cell suspensions, in view of the marked tendency of dead or damaged cells to adsorb protein nonspecifically. Next, cells were reacted at 0 degrees C for 30 min with graded dilutions of unlabeled rabbit antisera against defined mouse Ig chains. After washing, the cells were reacted with a sheep anti-rabbit globulin reagent labeled with (125)I, again at graded concentrations. After further washing, lymphocyte labeling was quantitated by both bulk scintillation counting and radioautography. Conditions were defined in which nonthymus-derived cells (B cells) but not thymus-derived cells (T cells) could be labeled. Most B cells displayed kappa- and micro-chains on their surface, but some also displayed alpha- and gamma(2)-chains, though in smaller amounts. When the concentration of both the first and the second reagents were raised considerably, conditions were defined under which virtually all T cells could be labeled by polyvalent antiglobulin sera, anti-kappa sera, or, with more difficulty, by anti-micro sera. A large series of control experiments confirmed the serologic specificity of this labeling. It was shown that under equivalent conditions, B cells bind 100-400 times more antiglobulin than do T cells. The theoretical implications of the results are briefly discussed. It is argued that the sandwich approach offers certain technical advantages over direct labeling procedures for further analyses of T cell receptors and for studies of receptor metabolism.
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    In vitro stimulation of antibody formation by peritoneal cells. I. Plaque technique of high sensitivity enabling access to the cells.
    Nossal, GJ ; Bussard, AE ; Lewis, H ; Mazie, JC (Rockefeller University Press, 1970-05-01)
    An improved method for the short-term culture of mouse peritoneal cells in a medium containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sheep erythrocytes (SRBC), and guinea pig complement is described. It involves preparation of microcultures, of thickness 12-15 micro and volume 3.6 microl, under paraffin oil. With such cultures, peritoneal cells from normal, unimmunized young male CBA mice give about 3000 hemolytic plaques per million cells cultured, this figure being attained within 24 hr. The plaque detection method is about four times as sensitive as the Jerne technique. A method is described whereby such plaque-forming cells (PFC) can be transferred, by micromanipulation, to fresh monolayer cultures containing SRBC, CMC, and complement. In this fashion, the secretory capacity and susceptibility to inhibitors of peritoneal PFC can be tested in detail. Using this technique, evidence is presented that the hemolytic substance responsible for plaque formation is actually secreted by the cell at the center of the plaque, and is not a complement component but probably an antibody. Studies on the time of plaque appearance after cell transfer, and the subsequent growth rate of the zone of hemolysis, have been performed. They speak against the idea that the PFC is either a reservoir of cytophilic antibody or a "background" PFC. Rather they suggest that active antibody secretion is induced in the cell at some defined time point in culture. Detailed kinetics of the rate of appearance of plaques in peritoneal cell cultures revealed an exponential phase lasting from about 3 to about 13 hr with a doubling time of 2 hr. The reasons for this are not known. A greatly heightened reactivity was shown in peritoneal cells of mice that had been pregnant several times. Cultures of such cells showed more rapid plaque appearance and a peak activity about 20 times higher than with cells from young male mice. Cultures in which 1 cell in 10 formed a plaque were not infrequent. A series of experiments on germ-free mice showed reactivity similar to that of conventional mice from the same strain and source. The significance of the findings for cellular immunology are discussed.
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    Effector cell blockade. A new mechanism of immune hyporeactivity induced by multivalent antigens.
    Schrader, JW ; Nossal, GJ (Rockefeller University Press, 1974-06-01)
    This study describes the effects of incubating antibody-forming cells (AFC), either as mass cell suspensions, or as single AFC in microdroplets, with antigens against which the cells display specificity. Most of the work was done with hapten-specific anti-DNP-AFC, but AFC with specificity against flagellar antigens or fowl gamma globulin (FGG) were also included. It was noted that 30-min incubation of AFC with highly multivalent forms of antigen caused a substantial partial suppression of the antibody-forming performance of the AFC as measured by a hemolytic plaque test. Thus, when cell suspensions containing anti-DNP plaque-forming cells (PFC), were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with 100 microg of DNP-polymerized flagellin (DNP-POL), the number of plaques appearing after washing of the cells and placing them in plaque-revealing erythrocyte monolayers was reduced to 50% or less compared with the number of plaques observed with control portions preincubated with medium alone. Preincubation with DNP-lysine, with oligovalent DNP-protein conjugates, or with irrelevant antigens produced no such inhibition. Studies where preinhibited PFC suspensions were mixed with control suspensions before assay showed that a nonspecific carryover of antigen into the assay system was not involved. The inhibitory effect could also be initiated by holding cells at 0 degrees C with DNP-POL, but in that case, inhibition only became manifest after cells were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C before being placed in plaque-revealing monolayers. This suggested that inhibition was initiated by adsorption of multivalent antigen onto PFC-surface Ig, but required some active process before secretion actually slowed down. The effect was dose- and time-dependent, antigen-specific, and generalized for all antigens studied. As well as yielding reduced plaque numbers, the preinhibited cells also gave smaller, more turbid plaques, suggesting a reduction in antibody-forming rate by each PFC rather than the elimination of PFC. Consistent with this suggestion was the observation that the degree of inhibition of plaque formation could be increased by decreasing the sensitivity of the assay so that only AFC secreting at high rates were detected. A micromanipulation study, where single PFC were subjected to inhibition, and were then tested for the rate at which they could cause hemolysis, showed a 68% inhibition of mean secretory rate. Micromanipulation studies were performed to test the amount of cell surface-associated Ig on control and preinhibited PFC. For this, single PFC were held with [(125)I]antiglobulin and quantitative radioautography was performed. No significant difference emerged, suggesting that retention of secreted Ig on cell-attached antigen was not the cause of inhibition. The results are discussed in the framework of tolerance models and blocking effects at the T-cell level by antigen-antibody complexes. The name effector cell blockade is suggested in the belief that the phenomenon may be a general one applying to both T and B cells.