Minerva Elements Records

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 69545
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Diabetes and Oral Health (DiabOH): The Perspectives of Primary Healthcare Providers in the Management of Diabetes and Periodontitis in China and Comparison with Those in Australia
    Yun, A ; Luo, Y ; Calache, H ; Wang, Y ; Darby, I ; Lau, P (MDPI, 2022-06-01)
    Diabetes and periodontal disease are highly prevalent conditions around the world with a bilateral causative relationship. Research suggests that interprofessional collaboration can improve care delivery and treatment outcomes. However, there continues to be little interprofessional management of these diseases. DiabOH research aims to develop an interprofessional diabetes and oral health care model for primary health care that would be globally applicable. Community medical practitioners (CMPs), community health nurses (CNs), and dentists in Shanghai were recruited to participate in online quantitative surveys. Response data of 76 CMPs, CNs, and dentists was analysed for descriptive statistics and compared with Australian data. Health professionals in China reported that, while screening for diabetes and periodontitis, increasing patient referral and improving interprofessional collaboration would be feasible, these were not within their scope of practice. Oral health screening was rarely conducted by CMPs or CNs, while dentists were not comfortable discussing diabetes with patients. Most participants believed that better collaboration would benefit patients. Chinese professionals concurred that interprofessional collaboration is vital for the improved management of diabetes and periodontitis. These views were similar in Melbourne, except that Shanghai health professionals held increased confidence in managing patients with diabetes and were more welcoming to increased oral health training.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Circulating Soluble ACE2 Plays an Independent Role to Protect against Vascular Damage in Diabetic Mice
    Tikellis, C ; Robinson, GN ; Rosado, CJ ; Batu, D ; Zuniga-Gutierrez, MA ; Pickering, RJ ; Thomas, MC (MDPI, 2022-05-01)
    Circulating levels of soluble ACE2 are increased by diabetes. Although this increase is associated with the presence and severity of cardiovascular disease, the specific role of soluble ACE2 in atherogenesis is unclear. Previous studies suggested that, like circulating ACE, soluble ACE2 plays a limited role in vascular homeostasis. To challenge this hypothesis, we aimed to selectively increase circulating ACE2 and measure its effects on angiotensin II dependent atherogenesis. Firstly, in Ace2/ApoE DKO mice, restoration of circulating ACE2 with recombinant murine soluble (rmACE219-613; 1 mg/kg/alternate day IP) reduced plaque accumulation in the aortic arch, suggesting that the phenotype may be driven as much by loss of soluble ACE2 as the reduction in local ACE2. Secondly, in diabetic ApoE KO mice, where activation of the renin angiotensin system drives accelerated atherosclerosis, rmACE219-613 also reduced plaque accumulation in the aorta after 6 weeks. Thirdly, to ensure consistent long-term delivery of soluble ACE2, an intramuscular injection was used to deliver a DNA minicircle encoding ACE219-613. This strategy efficiently increased circulating soluble ACE2 and reduced atherogenesis and albuminuria in diabetic ApoE KO mice followed for 10 weeks. We propose that soluble ACE2 has independent vasculoprotective effects. Future strategies that increase soluble ACE2 may reduce accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes and other states in which the renin angiotensin system is upregulated.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Staphylococcus aureus specific lung resident memory CD4(+) Th1 cells attenuate the severity of influenza virus induced secondary bacterial pneumonia
    Braverman, J ; Monk, IR ; Ge, C ; Westall, GP ; Stinear, TP ; Wakim, LM (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-05-30)
    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of severe pulmonary infections. The evolution of multi-drug resistant strains limits antibiotic treatment options. To date, all candidate vaccines tested have failed, highlighting the need for an increased understanding of the immunological requirements for effective S. aureus immunity. Using an S. aureus strain engineered to express a trackable CD4+ T cell epitope and a murine model of S. aureus pneumonia, we show strategies that lodge Th1 polarised bacterium specific CD4+ tissue resident memory T cells (Trm) in the lung can significantly attenuate the severity of S. aureus pneumonia. This contrasts natural infection of mice that fails to lodge CD4+ Trm cells along the respiratory tract or provide protection against re-infection, despite initially generating Th17 bacterium specific CD4+ T cell responses. Interestingly, lack of CD4+ Trm formation after natural infection in mice appears to be reflected in humans, where the frequency of S. aureus reactive CD4+ Trm cells in lung tissue is also low. Our findings reveal the protective capacity of S. aureus specific respiratory tract CD4+ Th1 polarised Trm cells and highlight the potential for targeting these cells in vaccines that aim to prevent the development of S. aureus pneumonia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Connecting Healthcare with Income Maximisation Services: A Systematic Review on the Health, Wellbeing and Financial Impacts for Families with Young Children
    Burley, J ; Samir, N ; Price, A ; Parker, A ; Zhu, A ; Eapen, V ; Contreras-Suarez, D ; Schreurs, N ; Lawson, K ; Lingam, R ; Grace, R ; Raman, S ; Kemp, L ; Bishop, R ; Goldfeld, S ; Woolfenden, S (MDPI, 2022-06-01)
    Financial counselling and income-maximisation services have the potential to reduce financial hardship and its associated burdens on health and wellbeing in High Income Countries. However, referrals to financial counselling services are not systematically integrated into existing health service platforms, thus limiting our ability to identify and link families who might be experiencing financial hardship. Review evidence on this is scarce. The purpose of this study is to review "healthcare-income maximisation" models of care in high-income countries for families of children aged between 0 and 5 years experiencing financial difficulties, and their impacts on family finances and the health and wellbeing of parent(s)/caregiver(s) or children. A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBase, PsycInfo, CINAHL, ProQuest, Family & Society Studies Worldwide, Cochrane Library, and Informit Online databases was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of six studies (five unique samples) met inclusion criteria, which reported a total of 11,603 families exposed to a healthcare-income maximisation model. An average annual gain per person of £1661 and £1919 was reported in two studies reporting one Scottish before-after study, whereby health visitors/midwives referred 4805 clients to money advice services. In another UK before-after study, financial counsellors were attached to urban primary healthcare centres and reported an average annual gain per person of £1058. The randomized controlled trial included in the review reported no evidence of impacts on financial or non-financial outcomes, or maternal health outcomes, but did observe small to moderate effects on child health and well-being. Small to moderate benefits were seen in areas relating to child health, preschool education, parenting, child abuse, and early behavioral adjustment. There was a high level of bias in most studies, and insufficient evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare-income maximisation models of care. Rigorous (RCT-level) studies with clear evaluations are needed to assess efficacy and effectiveness.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Impression formation stimuli: A corpus of behavior statements rated on morality, competence, informativeness, and believability
    Mickelberg, A ; Walker, B ; Ecker, UKH ; Howe, P ; Perfors, A ; Fay, N ; Galak, J (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2022-01-01)
    To investigate impression formation, researchers tend to rely on statements that describe a person's behavior (e.g., "Alex ridicules people behind their backs"). These statements are presented to participants who then rate their impressions of the person. However, a corpus of behavior statements is costly to generate, and pre-existing corpora may be outdated and might not measure the dimension(s) of interest. The present study makes available a normed corpus of 160 contemporary behavior statements that were rated on 4 dimensions relevant to impression formation: morality, competence, informativeness, and believability. In addition, we show that the different dimensions are non-independent, exhibiting a range of linear and non-linear relationships, which may present a problem for past research. However, researchers interested in impression formation can control for these relationships (e.g., statistically) using the present corpus of behavior statements.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Time to resolution of tubal ectopic pregnancy following methotrexate treatment: A retrospective cohort study.
    Davenport, MJ ; Lindquist, A ; Brownfoot, F ; Pritchard, N ; Tong, S ; Hastie, R ; Garzon, S (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022)
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the time to resolution of tubal ectopic pregnancy after methotrexate treatment. METHODS: A 14-year retrospective cohort study was performed from 2004-2018 and assessed 216 women treated with single-dose methotrexate for tubal ectopic pregnancy. Women were treated using a single-dose protocol of intramuscular methotrexate (50mg/m2) for confirmed tubal ectopic pregnancy on ultrasound. Ectopic pregnancies were included if the ectopic pregnancy mass was <35mm, no evidence of rupture and no embryonic cardiac activity. Serum hCG was measured on day 1, 4 and 7 of treatment and then at standard weekly intervals until resolution. Where there was not a ≥15% decline in hCG from day 4 and day 7, a second dose of methotrexate was administered. The primary outcome was time to resolution (days), with serum hCG <5 IU/L considered resolved. The secondary outcome was need for rescue surgery. RESULTS: Among women who did not proceed to surgery, the median time to resolution was 22 days (IQR 14,34). Time to resolution and need for rescue surgery increased with baseline hCG. When hCG was <1000 IU/L, the median was 20 days (IQR 13,29) but 34.5 days (IQR 22,48) with hCG >2000 IU/L. Early hCG trends were predictive of time to resolution and likelihood of rescue surgery; a hCG rise of >1000 IU/L between Days 1-4 increased time to resolution to 61 days (IQR 35,80) and an odds ratio of rescue surgery of 28.6 (95% C.I. 5.3,155.4). CONCLUSION: The median time to resolution for ectopic pregnancies treated with methotrexate is 22 days and associated with baseline hCG levels. The predictive value of baseline hCG may be useful in clinical decision making and counselling women considering methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    N95 respirators: quantitative fit test pass rates and usability and comfort assessment by health care workers
    Ng, I ; Kave, B ; Begg, F ; Bodas, CR ; Segal, R ; Williams, D (WILEY, 2022-05-29)
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of four N95 respirator types with respect to quantitative fit test pass rate and health care worker-rated usability and comfort. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Health care workers who participated in the respiratory protection program at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, 1 October 2020 - 31 May 2021. Participants underwent quantitative N95 respirator fit testing (at least three of four types: semi-rigid cup, flat-fold cup, duckbill, and three-panel flat-fold types), and were invited to complete an online usability and comfort assessment for respirators for which their fit test results were passes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fit test pass rate, and user-rated overall comfort and assessment ratings (five-point Likert scales), by N95 respirator type. RESULTS: A total of 2161 health care workers underwent quantitative fit testing (women, 1586 [73.4%]; nurses, 1271 [58.8%]). The overall fit test pass rates were 65.0% for the semi-rigid cup respirators (1029/1583 tests), 32.4% for the flat-fold respirator (660/2035 tests), 59.2% for the duckbill respirators (2005/3387 tests), and 96.4% for the three-panel flat-fold respirator (1876/1946 tests). 378 health care workers completed the comfort and usability survey. Overall comfort and assessment ratings each differed by respirator group (P < 0.001); the median overall comfort (4; IQR, 3-4) and overall assessment values (4; IQR, 3-5) were highest for the three-panel flat-fold respirator and lowest for the semi-rigid cup respirators (comfort: 2 [IQR, 1-3]; assessment: 2 [IQR, 2-3]). CONCLUSIONS: The three-panel flat-fold N95 respirator outperformed the three alternative types with regard to fit test pass rate and user-rated comfort and usability. To maximise respiratory protection for health care workers, these factors should be considered when making respirator procurement decisions.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Association of pneumococcal carriage in infants with the risk of carriage among their contacts in Nha Trang, Vietnam: A nested cross-sectional survey.
    Qian, G ; Toizumi, M ; Clifford, S ; Le, LT ; Papastylianou, T ; Satzke, C ; Quilty, B ; Iwasaki, C ; Kitamura, N ; Takegata, M ; Bui, MX ; Nguyen, HAT ; Dang, DA ; van Hoek, AJ ; Yoshida, LM ; Flasche, S ; Kretzschmar, MEE (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022-05)
    BACKGROUND: Infants are at highest risk of pneumococcal disease. Their added protection through herd effects is a key part in the considerations on optimal pneumococcal vaccination strategies. Yet, little is currently known about the main transmission pathways to this vulnerable age group. Hence, this study investigates pneumococcal transmission routes to infants in the coastal city of Nha Trang, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In October 2018, we conducted a nested cross-sectional contact and pneumococcal carriage survey in randomly selected 4- to 11-month-old infants across all 27 communes of Nha Trang. Bayesian logistic regression models were used to estimate age specific carriage prevalence in the population, a proxy for the probability that a contact of a given age could lead to pneumococcal exposure for the infant. We used another Bayesian logistic regression model to estimate the correlation between infant carriage and the probability that at least one of their reported contacts carried pneumococci, controlling for age and locality. In total, 1,583 infants between 4 and 13 months old participated, with 7,428 contacts reported. Few infants (5%, or 86 infants) attended day care, and carriage prevalence was 22% (353 infants). Most infants (61%, or 966 infants) had less than a 25% probability to have had close contact with a pneumococcal carrier on the surveyed day. Pneumococcal infection risk and contact behaviour were highly correlated: If adjusted for age and locality, the odds of an infant's carriage increased by 22% (95% confidence interval (CI): 15 to 29) per 10 percentage points increase in the probability to have had close contact with at least 1 pneumococcal carrier. Moreover, 2- to 6-year-old children contributed 51% (95% CI: 39 to 63) to the total direct pneumococcal exposure risks to infants in this setting. The main limitation of this study is that exposure risk was assessed indirectly by the age-dependent propensity for carriage of a contact and not by assessing carriage of such contacts directly. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that cross-sectional contact and infection studies could help identify pneumococcal transmission routes and that preschool-age children may be the largest reservoir for pneumococcal transmission to infants in Nha Trang, Vietnam.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Redevelopment of mental health first aid guidelines for supporting someone experiencing a panic attack: a Delphi study
    Chalmers, KJ ; Rossetto, A ; Reavley, NJ ; Jorm, AF ; Kitchener, BA ; Kelly, CM ; Morgan, AJ ; Bond, KS ; Cottrill, FA (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-05-27)
    BACKGROUND: Panic attacks and panic disorder can have a major impact on the mental health and wellbeing of those who experience them. People with recurrent panic attacks have increased odds of developing a mental disorder and of worsening the course of existing mental disorders. Early intervention efforts at the time that a panic attack occurs might reduce or prevent some of these associated negative outcomes. Expert consensus guidelines for high income Western countries on how to provide mental health first aid for panic attacks were published in 2009. The present study aims to redevelop these guidelines to ensure content reflects current evidence and best practice. METHODS: The Delphi consensus method was used to determine which helping strategies should be included in the redeveloped guidelines. A survey with items on how to assist someone who is having a panic attack was developed using the 2009 guidelines and a systematic search of grey and academic literature. Panellists with lived experience and professional experience rated these items to determine which helping statements should be included in the guidelines. RESULTS: Thirty panellists completed all three surveys. Panellists rated 158 statements, with 83 statements meeting the criteria for inclusion in the redeveloped guidelines. The endorsed statements covered: what the first aider should know about panic attacks, what they should do if they think someone is having a panic attack, what they should do if they are uncertain whether the person is having a panic attack, what they should say and do if they know the person is having a panic attack and what they should do when the panic attack has ended. CONCLUSION: This study has resulted in a more comprehensive set of guidelines than the original version, with the endorsement of 83 helping actions, compared to 27 previously. The redeveloped guidelines provide greater detail on recognising the signs of a panic attack, providing initial assistance, communicating with someone experiencing a panic attack and supporting them to seek appropriate professional help if it is needed. The guidelines will be used in future updates of Mental Health First Aid training courses.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Author Correction: The transcriptome of circulating sexually committed Plasmodium falciparum ring stage parasites forecasts malaria transmission potential.
    Prajapati, SK ; Ayanful-Torgby, R ; Pava, Z ; Barbeau, MC ; Acquah, FK ; Cudjoe, E ; Kakaney, C ; Amponsah, JA ; Obboh, E ; Ahmed, AE ; Abuaku, BK ; McCarthy, JS ; Amoah, LE ; Williamson, KC (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-05-30)