Agriculture and Food Systems - Research Publications

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    Plant Secondary Metabolites for Human Health Extraction of Bioactive Compounds
    Goyal, MR ; Joy, PP ; Suleria, H (Apple Academic Press, 2019)
    This new book deals with recent advanced research on natural products and health-promoting foods that work to reduce the risk of diseases while enhancing overall well-being.
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    Human Health Benefits of Plant Bioactive Compounds Potentials and Prospects
    Goyal, MR ; Suleria, HAR (Apple Academic Press, 2019)
    Focusing on the importance of functional foods and their secondary metabolites for human health, this volume presents new insights with scientific evidence on the use of functional foods in the treatment of certain diseases.
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    Dioscorea Plants: A Genus Rich in Vital Nutra-pharmaceuticals-A Review
    Salehi, B ; Sener, B ; Kilic, M ; Sharifi-Rad, J ; Naz, R ; Yousaf, Z ; Mudau, FN ; Fokou, PVT ; Ezzat, SM ; El Bishbishy, MH ; Taheri, Y ; Lucariello, G ; Durazzo, A ; Lucarini, M ; Suleria, HAR ; Santini, A (SHAHEED BEHESHTI UNIV, SCH PHARMACY, 2019-09-01)
    Dioscorea species, known as "Yams," belong to family Dioscoreaceae. This genus consists of more than 600 species distributed from Africa, Asia, the Caribbean's South America, and the South Pacific islands. Their organoleptic properties make them the most widely used carbohydrate food and dietary supplements. The underground and/or aerial tubers represent valuable sources of proteins, fats, and vitamins for millions of people in West Africa. This review gives a shot of secondary metabolites of Dioscorea plants, including steroids, clerodane diterpenes, quinones, cyanidins, phenolics, diarylheptanoids, and nitrogen-containing compounds. This review collected the evidence on biological properties of description Dioscorea, including in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Dioscorea species contain promising bioactive molecules i.e. diosgenin that support their different biological properties, including antioxidant, hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, anti- antimicrobial, inflammatory, antiproliferative, androgenic, estrogenic, and contraceptive drugs. Indeed, besides its nutrient values, Dioscorea is a potential source of bioactive substances of interest in the prevention/treatment of several diseases, and thus represents a great challenge in developing countries. However, ethnomedicinal potential should be validated and further researches on pharmacological properties and phytochemical composition should be carried out. Particularly, doing some studies to convert the preclinical results to clinical efficacy should be guaranteed. Dioscorea, Food plant, Traditional use, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological activities.
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    Microencapsulation and Characterization of Natural Polyphenols from PHF Extract
    Hussain, SA ; Hameed, A ; Nazir, Y ; Naz, T ; Wu, Y ; Suleria, HAR ; Song, Y (MDPI AG, 2018-05-23)
    Microencapsulation of polyherbal formulation (PHF) extract was carried out by freeze drying method, by employing gum arabic (GA), gelatin (GE), and maltodextrin (MD) with their designated different combinations as encapsulating wall materials. Antioxidant components (i.e total phenolic contents (TPC),Total flavonoids contents (TFC), and total condensed contents (TCT)), antioxidant activity (i.e. DPPH, β-carotene & ABTS+ assays), moisture contents, water activity (aw), solubility, hygroscopicity, glass transition temperature (Tg), particle size, morphology, in vitro alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition and bioavailability ratios of the powders were investigated. Amongst all encapsulated products, TB (5% GA and 5% MD) and TC (10% GA) has proven to be the best treatments with respect to the highest preservation of antioxidant components and their antioxidant potential by DPPH and β-carotene assays and noteworthy for an ABTS+ assays, in addition, the aforesaid treatments also demonstrated lower moisture content, aw, particle size and higher solubility, hygroscopicity and glass transition temperature (Tg). All freeze dried samples showed irregular (asymmetrical) microcrystalline structures. Furthermore, TB and TC also illustrated the highest in vitro anti-diabetic potential due to great potency for inhibiting alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase activities. In the perspective of bioavailability, TA, TB and TC demonstrated the excellent bioavailability ratios (%).Futhermore, the phytochemo-profiling of ethanolic extract of PHF was also revealed to find out the bioactive compounds.
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    Farm to Consumer: Factors Affecting the Organoleptic Characteristics of Coffee. II: Postharvest Processing Factors
    Hameed, A ; Hussain, SA ; Ijaz, MU ; Ullah, S ; Pasha, I ; Suleria, HAR (Wiley, 2018-09-01)
    The production and consumption of coffee are increasing despite the roadblocks to its agriculture and global trade. The unique, refreshing, and stimulating final cupping quality of coffee is the only reason for this rising production and consumption. Coffee quality is a multifaceted trait and is inevitably influenced by the way it is successively processed after harvesting. Reportedly, 60% of the quality attributes of coffee are governed by postharvest processing. The current review elaborates and establishes for the first time the relationship between different methods of postharvest processing of coffee and its varying organoleptic and sensory quality attributes. In view of the proven significance of each processing step, this review has been subdivided into three sections, secondary processing, primary processing, and postprocessing variables. Secondary processing addresses the immediate processing steps on the farm after harvest and storage before roasting. The primary processing section adheres specifically to roasting, grinding and brewing/extraction, topics which have been technically addressed more than any others in the literature and by industry. The postprocessing attribute section deals generally with interaction of the consumer with products of different visual appearance. Finally, there are still some bottlenecks which need to be addressed, not only to completely understand the relationship of varying postharvest processing methods with varying in-cup quality attributes, but also to devise the next generation of coffee processing technologies.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Profiling of Australian Mango Peel By-Product Polyphenols and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities
    Peng, D ; Zahid, HF ; Ajlouni, S ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI AG, 2019-10-18)
    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important fruits in the world. Mango peel is an important by-product that is rich in polyphenols and it could have high economic value if it is e_ectively utilized. Phenolic characterization is an essential step in the commercial utilization of mango peel by-products as food ingredients. Herein, qualitative and quantitative analyses of two Australian mango peel “Keitt” and “Kensington Pride” (K&P) by-products were conducted while using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). A total of 98 polyphenols compounds were tentatively identified in both Keitt peel and K&P peel extracts, with greater concentrations of these compounds being detected in Keitt peel. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and a total tannin content (TTC) were determined. The antioxidant activity of mango peel by-products was determined while using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Keitt peel contained higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins and had higher antioxidant capacity in DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays as compared to K&P peel. In HPLC-PDA quantification, the predominant phenolic compounds in Keitt peel and K&P peel were catechin (62.32 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w.) and syringic acid (17.78 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w).
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    Marine Processing Waste: In Search of Bioactive Molecules
    Rasul Suleria, HA (Longdom Publishing, 2016)
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    Supplementation of Powdered Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Seeds Reduces the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia
    Sultan, MT ; Butt, MS ; Ahmad, RS ; Batool, R ; Naz, A ; Suleria, H (Functional Food Center, 2011)
    Background: Functional and nutraceutical foods are gaining immense popularity among the masses. Plants and their bioactive molecules are of prime importance. Although various plants from different geographical areas have been tested in the past, many horizons still need to be addressed. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is one such example that is quite popular in South Asia and the Middle East. Context and purpose: The present research study was designed to expedite the role of black cumin seed in reducing the risk of hypercholesterolemia. For the purpose, thirty Sprague dawley rats were procured from the National Institute of Health (NIH) in Islamabad, Pakistan, and further split up into three groups, (10 rats each). Experimental diets were prepared using powdered black cumin (PBC) at 1% and 2%, and compared with the placebo. Results: The results revealed that PBC was effective in reducing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Additionally, the experimental diets resulted in a non-significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Overall, powdered black cumin at 1% and 2% reduced cholesterol level by 6.73, and 4.48%, LDL by 24.79, and 24.32% respectively. However, the supplementation of PBC at 2% resulted in marked variations as increasing tendency, which was recorded for cholesterol and triglycerides contents after 28 days of study. Conclusion: Present research investigation brightened the prospects of using powdered black cumin seed in diet based therapies to improve the lipid profile. Further studies are still required to assess the phytochemistry of the plants and indeed the functional ingredients responsible for such health benefits. Such studies would bring meticulousness for utilization of black cumin seeds as a functional food.
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    Therapeutic Potential of Seaweed Bioactive Compounds
    Khalid, S ; Abbas, M ; Saeed, F ; Bader-Ul-Ain, H ; Ansar Rasul Suleria, H ; Maiti, S (IntechOpen, 2018)
    Edible seaweeds are rich in bioactive compounds such as soluble dietary fibers, proteins, peptides, minerals, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. Previously, seaweeds were only used as gelling and thickening agents in the food or pharmaceutical industries, recent researches have revealed their potential as complementary medicine. The red, brown and green seaweeds have been shown to have therapeutic properties for health and disease management, such as anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antiestrogenic, thyroid stimulating, neuroprotective, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and tissue healing properties. In proposed chapter, we discussed various active compounds include sulphated polysaccharides, phlorotannins, carotenoids (e.g. fucoxanthin), minerals, peptides and sulfolipids, with proven benefits against degenerative metabolic diseases. Moreover, therapeutic modes of action of these bioactive components and their reports are summarized in this chapter.
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    Growth Performance and Characterization of Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Betaine and Antioxidants under Cyclic Heat Stress
    Shakeri, M ; Cottrell, JJ ; Wilkinson, S ; Le, HH ; Suleria, HAR ; Warner, RD ; Dunshea, FR (MDPI, 2019-09-01)
    Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative stress, which compromises broiler performance and meat quality. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary antioxidants could be used as an amelioration strategy. Seventy-two day-old-male Ross-308 chicks were exposed to either thermoneutral or cyclical heat stress conditions. Diets were either control commercial diet (CON), CON plus betaine (BET), or with a combination of betaine, selenized yeast, and vitamin E (BET + AOX). Heat stress increased the rectal temperature (p < 0.001), respiration rate (p < 0.001), decreased blood pCO2 (p = 0.002), and increased blood pH (p = 0.02), which indicated the HS broilers had respiratory alkalosis. Final body weight was decreased by HS (p < 0.001), whereas it was improved with BET (p = 0.05). Heat stress reduced cooking loss (p = 0.007) and no effect on drip loss, while BET decreased the drip loss (p = 0.01). Heat stress reduced the myofibril fragmentation index (p < 0.001) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.001), while these were improved with the combination of BET + AOX (p = 0.003). In conclusion, BET overall improved growth rates and product quality in this small university study, whereas some additional benefits were provided by AOX on product quality in both TN and HS broilers.