Agriculture and Food Systems - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 686
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Delta-6 Desaturase Substrate Competition: Dietary Linoleic Acid (18:2n-6) Has Only Trivial Effects on alpha-Linolenic Acid (18:3n-3) Bioconversion in the Teleost Rainbow Trout
    Emery, JA ; Hermon, K ; Hamid, NKA ; Donald, JA ; Turchini, GM ; Yoshikawa, T (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-02-27)
    It is generally accepted that, in vertebrates, omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compete for Δ-6 desaturase enzyme in order to be bioconverted into long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA). However, recent studies into teleost fatty acid metabolism suggest that these metabolic processes may not conform entirely to what has been previously observed in mammals and other animal models. Recent work on rainbow trout has led us to question specifically if linoleic acid (LA, 18∶2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18∶3n-3) (Δ-6 desaturase substrates) are in direct competition for access to Δ-6 desaturase. Two experimental diets were formulated with fixed levels of ALA, while LA levels were varied (high and low) to examine if increased availability of LA would result in decreased bioconversion of ALA to its LC-PUFA products through substrate competition. No significant difference in ALA metabolism towards n-3 LC-PUFA was exhibited between diets while significant differences were observed in LA metabolism towards n-6 LC-PUFA. These results are evidence for minor if any competition between substrates for Δ-6 desaturase, suggesting that, paradoxically, the activity of Δ-6 desaturase on n-3 and n-6 substrates is independent. These results call for a paradigm shift in the way we approach teleost fatty acid metabolism. The findings are also important with regard to diet formulation in the aquaculture industry as they indicate that there should be no concern for possible substrate competition between 18∶3n-3 and 18∶2n-6, when aiming at increased n-3 LC-PUFA bioconversion in vivo.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Isolation and Functional Characterisation of a fads2 in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Delta 5 Desaturase Activity
    Hamid, NKA ; Carmona-Antonanzas, G ; Monroig, O ; Tocher, DR ; Turchini, GM ; Donald, JA ; Virolle, M-J (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2016-03-04)
    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are intensively cultured globally. Understanding their requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and the biochemistry of the enzymes and biosynthetic pathways required for fatty acid synthesis is important and highly relevant in current aquaculture. Most gnathostome vertebrates have two fatty acid desaturase (fads) genes with known functions in LC-PUFA biosynthesis and termed fads1 and fads2. However, teleost fish have exclusively fads2 genes. In rainbow trout, a fads2 cDNA had been previously cloned and found to encode an enzyme with Δ6 desaturase activity. In the present study, a second fads2 cDNA was cloned from the liver of rainbow trout and termed fads2b. The full-length mRNA contained 1578 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1365 nucleotides that encoded a 454 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 52.48 kDa. The predicted Fads2b protein had the characteristic traits of the microsomal Fads family, including an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain containing the heme-binding motif (HPPG), histidine boxes (HDXGH, HFQHH and QIEHH) and three transmembrane regions. The fads2b was expressed predominantly in the brain, liver, intestine and pyloric caeca. Expression of the fasd2b in yeast generated a protein that was found to specifically convert eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and therefore functioned as a Δ5 desaturase. Therefore, rainbow trout have two fads2 genes that encode proteins with Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities, respectively, which enable this species to perform all the desaturation steps required for the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from C18 precursors.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Bioconversion of alpha-Linolenic Acid into n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in Hepatocytes and Ad Hoc Cell Culture Optimisation
    Alhazzaa, R ; Sinclair, AJ ; Turchini, GM ; Vajreswari, A (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-09-11)
    This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18:3n-3 (ALA) bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO) as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20:5n-3 (EPA) production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125 µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22:5n-3 (DPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB) method on cell culture system (cells with medium) enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km) of the theoretical maximal (V max = 3654 µmol.g(-1) of cell protein.hour(-1)) Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20:5n-3 elongation) was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The Expression of Pre- and Postcopulatory Sexually Selected Traits Reflects Levels of Dietary Stress in Guppies
    Rahman, MM ; Turchini, GM ; Gasparini, C ; Norambuena, F ; Evans, JP ; McGraw, K (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2014-08-29)
    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed 'n3LC') influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet 'quantity' treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males' colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Fish Oil Replacement in Current Aquaculture Feed: Is Cholesterol a Hidden Treasure for Fish Nutrition?
    Norambuena, F ; Lewis, M ; Hamid, NKA ; Hermon, K ; Donald, JA ; Turchini, GM ; Gothilf, Y (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-12-04)
    Teleost fish, as with all vertebrates, are capable of synthesizing cholesterol and as such have no dietary requirement for it. Thus, limited research has addressed the potential effects of dietary cholesterol in fish, even if fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by vegetable alternatives in modern aquafeeds, resulting in progressively reduced dietary cholesterol content. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary cholesterol fortification in a vegetable oil-based diet can manifest any effects on growth and feed utilization performance in the salmonid fish, the rainbow trout. In addition, given a series of studies in mammals have shown that dietary cholesterol can directly affect the fatty acid metabolism, the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism of fish fed the experimental diets was assessed. Triplicate groups of juvenile fish were fed one of two identical vegetable oil-based diets, with additional cholesterol fortification (high cholesterol; H-Chol) or without (low cholesterol; L-Chol), for 12 weeks. No effects were observed on growth and feed efficiency, however, in fish fed H-Col no biosynthesis of cholesterol, and a remarkably decreased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation were recorded, whilst in L-Chol fed fish, cholesterol was abundantly biosynthesised and an increased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation was observed. Only minor effects were observed on the activity of stearyl-CoA desaturase, but a significant increase was observed for both the transcription rate in liver and the apparent in vivo activity of the fatty acid Δ-6 desaturase and elongase, with increasing dietary cholesterol. This study showed that the possible effects of reduced dietary cholesterol in current aquafeeds can be significant and warrant future investigations.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids-Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?
    Ghasemifard, S ; Sinclair, AJ ; Kaur, G ; Lewandowski, P ; Turchini, GM (MDPI AG, 2015-07-01)
    The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) vary from eating oily fish ("once to twice per week") to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ("250-500 mg per day"). It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment), representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment), representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA), for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) + DHA) was towards catabolism (β-oxidation) accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose), compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose). Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose), than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose). These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Algae in Fish Feed: Performances and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon
    Norambuena, F ; Hermon, K ; Skrzypczyk, V ; Emery, JA ; Sharon, Y ; Beard, A ; Turchini, GM ; Pond, DW (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2015-04-15)
    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet) of algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature
    Norambuena, F ; Morais, S ; Emery, JA ; Turchini, GM ; Meador, JP (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2015-11-24)
    Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad-time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher water temperature recorded a significantly increased feed intake, these results clearly suggested that at high, sub-optimal water temperature, fish metabolism attempted to increment its overall ARA status -the most bioactive LC-PUFA participating in the inflammatory response- by modulating the metabolic fate of dietary ARA (expressed as % of net intake), reducing its β-oxidation and favouring synthesis and deposition. This correlates also with results from other recent studies showing that both immune- and stress- responses in fish are up regulated in fish held at high temperatures. This is a novel and fundamental information that warrants industry and scientific attention, in consideration of the imminent increase in water temperatures, continuous expansion of aquaculture operations, resources utilisation in aquafeed and much needed seasonal/adaptive nutritional strategies.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Genetic structure of Cercospora beticola populations on Beta vulgaris in New York and Hawaii
    Vaghefi, N ; Nelson, SC ; Kikkert, JR ; Pethybridge, SJ (NATURE RESEARCH, 2017-05-11)
    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by Cercospora beticola, is a major disease of Beta vulgaris worldwide. No sexual stage is known for C. beticola but in its asexual form it overwinters on infected plant debris as pseudostromata, and travels short distances by rain splash-dispersed conidiospores. Cercospora beticola infects a broad range of host species and may be seedborne. The relative contribution of these inoculum sources to CLS epidemics on table beet is not well understood. Pathogen isolates collected from table beet, Swiss chard and common lambsquarters in mixed-cropping farms and monoculture fields in New York and Hawaii, USA, were genotyped (n = 600) using 12 microsatellite markers. All isolates from CLS symptoms on lambsquarters were identified as C. chenopodii. Sympatric populations of C. beticola derived from Swiss chard and table beet were not genetically differentiated. Results suggested that local (within field) inoculum sources may be responsible for the initiation of CLS epidemics in mixed-cropping farms, whereas external sources of inoculum may be contributing to CLS epidemics in the monoculture fields in New York. New multiplex PCR assays were developed for mating-type determination for C. beticola. Implications of these findings for disease management are discussed.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Fungal Planet description sheets: 951-1041
    Crous, PW ; Wingfield, MJ ; Lombard, L ; Roets, F ; Swart, WJ ; Alvarado, P ; Carnegie, AJ ; Moreno, G ; Luangsa-ard, J ; Thangavel, R ; Alexandrova, AV ; Baseia, IG ; Bellanger, J-M ; Bessette, AE ; Bessette, AR ; De la Pena-Lastra, S ; Garcia, D ; Gene, J ; Pham, THG ; Heykoop, M ; Malysheva, E ; Malysheva, V ; Martin, MP ; Morozova, OV ; Noisripoom, W ; Overton, BE ; Rea, AE ; Sewall, BJ ; Smith, ME ; Smyth, CW ; Tasanathai, K ; Visagie, CM ; Adamcik, S ; Alves, A ; Andrade, JP ; Aninat, MJ ; Araujo, RVB ; Bordallo, JJ ; Boufleur, T ; Baroncelli, R ; Barreto, RW ; Bolin, J ; Cabero, J ; Cabon, M ; Cafa, G ; Caffot, MLH ; Cai, L ; Carlavilla, JR ; Chavez, R ; de Castro, RRL ; Delgat, L ; Deschuyteneer, D ; Dios, MM ; Dominguez, LS ; Evans, HC ; Eyssartier, G ; Ferreira, BW ; Figueiredo, CN ; Liu, F ; Fournier, J ; Galli-Terasawa, LV ; Gil-Duran, C ; Glienke, C ; Goncalves, MFM ; Gryta, H ; Guarro, J ; Himaman, W ; Hywel-Jones, N ; Iturrieta-Gonzalez, I ; Ivanushkina, NE ; Jargeat, P ; Khalid, AN ; Khan, J ; Kiran, M ; Kiss, L ; Kochkina, GA ; Kolarik, M ; Kubatova, A ; Lodge, DJ ; Loizides, M ; Luque, D ; Manjon, JL ; Marbach, PAS ; Massola, NS ; Mata, M ; Miller, AN ; Mongkolsamrit, S ; Moreau, P-A ; Morte, A ; Mujic, A ; Navarro-Rodenas, A ; Nemeth, MZ ; Nobrega, TF ; Novakova, A ; Olariaga, I ; Ozerskaya, SM ; Palma, MA ; Petters-Vandresen, DAL ; Piontelli, E ; Popov, ES ; Rodriguez, A ; Requejo, O ; Rodrigues, ACM ; Rong, IH ; Roux, J ; Seifert, KA ; Silva, BDB ; Sklenar, F ; Smith, JA ; Sousa, JO ; Souza, HG ; De Souza, JT ; Svec, K ; Tanchaud, P ; Tanney, JB ; Terasawa, F ; Thanakitpipattana, D ; Torres-Garcia, D ; Vaca, I ; Vaghefi, N ; van Iperen, AL ; Vasilenko, OV ; Verbeken, A ; Yilmaz, N ; Zamora, JC ; Zapata, M ; Jurjevic, Z ; Groenewald, JZ (RIJKSHERBARIUM, 2019-12-01)
    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica, Apenidiella antarctica from permafrost, Cladosporium fildesense from an unidentified marine sponge. Argentina, Geastrum wrightii on humus in mixed forest. Australia, Golovinomyces glandulariae on Glandularia aristigera, Neoanungitea eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Teratosphaeria corymbiicola on leaves of Corymbia ficifolia, Xylaria eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus radiata. Brazil, Bovista psammophila on soil, Fusarium awaxy on rotten stalks of Zea mays, Geastrum lanuginosum on leaf litter covered soil, Hermetothecium mikaniae-micranthae (incl. Hermetothecium gen. nov.) on Mikania micrantha, Penicillium reconvexovelosoi in soil, Stagonosporopsis vannaccii from pod of Glycine max. British Virgin Isles, Lactifluus guanensis on soil. Canada, Sorocybe oblongispora on resin of Picea rubens. Chile, Colletotrichum roseum on leaves of Lapageria rosea. China, Setophoma caverna from carbonatite in Karst cave. Colombia, Lareunionomyces eucalypticola on leaves of Eucalyptus grandis. Costa Rica, Psathyrella pivae on wood. Cyprus, Clavulina iris on calcareous substrate. France, Chromosera ambigua and Clavulina iris var. occidentalis on soil. French West Indies, Helminthosphaeria hispidissima on dead wood. Guatemala, Talaromyces guatemalensis in soil. Malaysia, Neotracylla pini (incl. Tracyllales ord. nov. and Neotracylla gen. nov.) and Vermiculariopsiella pini on needles of Pinus tecunumanii. New Zealand, Neoconiothyrium viticola on stems of Vitis vinifera, Parafenestella pittospori on Pittosporum tenuifolium, Pilidium novae-zelandiae on Phoenix sp. Pakistan, Russula quercus-floribundae on forest floor. Portugal, Trichoderma aestuarinum from saline water. Russia, Pluteus liliputianus on fallen branch of deciduous tree, Pluteus spurius on decaying deciduous wood or soil. South Africa, Alloconiothyrium encephalarti, Phyllosticta encephalarticola and Neothyrostroma encephalarti (incl. Neothyrostroma gen. nov.) on leaves of Encephalartos sp., Chalara eucalypticola on leaf spots of Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla, Clypeosphaeria oleae on leaves of Olea capensis, Cylindrocladiella postalofficium on leaf litter of Sideroxylon inerme, Cylindromonium eugeniicola (incl. Cylindromonium gen. nov.) on leaf litter of Eugenia capensis, Cyphellophora goniomatis on leaves of Gonioma kamassi, Nothodactylaria nephrolepidis (incl. Nothodactylaria gen. nov. and Nothodactylariaceae fam. nov.) on leaves of Nephrolepis exaltata, Falcocladium eucalypti and Gyrothrix eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., Gyrothrix oleae on leaves of Olea capensis subsp. macrocarpa, Harzia metrosideri on leaf litter of Metrosideros sp., Hippopotamyces phragmitis (incl. Hippopotamyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Phragmites australis, Lectera philenopterae on Philenoptera violacea, Leptosillia mayteni on leaves of Maytenus heterophylla, Lithohypha aloicola and Neoplatysporoides aloes on leaves of Aloe sp., Millesimomyces rhoicissi (incl. Millesimomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Rhoicissus digitata, Neodevriesia strelitziicola on leaf litter of Strelitzia nicolai, Neokirramyces syzygii (incl. Neokirramyces gen. nov.) on leaf spots of Syzygium sp., Nothoramichloridium perseae (incl. Nothoramichloridium gen. nov. and Anungitiomycetaceae fam. nov.) on leaves of Persea americana, Paramycosphaerella watsoniae on leaf spots of Watsonia sp., Penicillium cuddlyae from dog food, Podocarpomyces knysnanus (incl. Podocarpomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Podocarpus falcatus, Pseudocercospora heteropyxidicola on leaf spots of Heteropyxis natalensis, Pseudopenidiella podocarpi, Scolecobasidium podocarpi and Ceramothyrium podocarpicola on leaves of Podocarpus latifolius, Scolecobasidium blechni on leaves of Blechnum capense, Stomiopeltis syzygii on leaves of Syzygium chordatum, Strelitziomyces knysnanus (incl. Strelitziomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Strelitzia alba, Talaromyces clemensii from rotting wood in goldmine, Verrucocladosporium visseri on Carpobrotus edulis. Spain, Boletopsis mediterraneensis on soil, Calycina cortegadensisi on a living twig of Castanea sativa, Emmonsiellopsis tuberculata in fluvial sediments, Mollisia cortegadensis on dead attached twig of Quercus robur, Psathyrella ovispora on soil, Pseudobeltrania lauri on leaf litter of Laurus azorica, Terfezia dunensis in soil, Tuber lucentum in soil, Venturia submersa on submerged plant debris. Thailand, Cordyceps jakajanicola on cicada nymph, Cordyceps kuiburiensis on spider, Distoseptispora caricis on leaves of Carex sp., Ophiocordyceps khonkaenensis on cicada nymph. USA, Cytosporella juncicola and Davidiellomyces juncicola on culms of Juncus effusus, Monochaetia massachusettsianum from air sample, Neohelicomyces melaleucae and Periconia neobrittanica on leaves of Melaleuca styphelioides × lanceolata, Pseudocamarosporium eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., Pseudogymnoascus lindneri from sediment in a mine, Pseudogymnoascus turneri from sediment in a railroad tunnel, Pulchroboletus sclerotiorum on soil, Zygosporium pseudomasonii on leaf of Serenoa repens. Vietnam, Boletus candidissimus and Veloporphyrellus vulpinus on soil. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes.