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ItemLC-ESI-QTOF/MS Profiling of Australian Mango Peel By-Product Polyphenols and Their Potential Antioxidant ActivitiesPeng, D ; Zahid, HF ; Ajlouni, S ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI AG, 2019-10-18)Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important fruits in the world. Mango peel is an important by-product that is rich in polyphenols and it could have high economic value if it is e_ectively utilized. Phenolic characterization is an essential step in the commercial utilization of mango peel by-products as food ingredients. Herein, qualitative and quantitative analyses of two Australian mango peel “Keitt” and “Kensington Pride” (K&P) by-products were conducted while using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). A total of 98 polyphenols compounds were tentatively identified in both Keitt peel and K&P peel extracts, with greater concentrations of these compounds being detected in Keitt peel. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and a total tannin content (TTC) were determined. The antioxidant activity of mango peel by-products was determined while using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Keitt peel contained higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins and had higher antioxidant capacity in DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays as compared to K&P peel. In HPLC-PDA quantification, the predominant phenolic compounds in Keitt peel and K&P peel were catechin (62.32 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w.) and syringic acid (17.78 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w).
ItemGrowth Performance and Characterization of Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Betaine and Antioxidants under Cyclic Heat StressShakeri, M ; Cottrell, JJ ; Wilkinson, S ; Le, HH ; Suleria, HAR ; Warner, RD ; Dunshea, FR (MDPI, 2019-09-01)Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative stress, which compromises broiler performance and meat quality. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary antioxidants could be used as an amelioration strategy. Seventy-two day-old-male Ross-308 chicks were exposed to either thermoneutral or cyclical heat stress conditions. Diets were either control commercial diet (CON), CON plus betaine (BET), or with a combination of betaine, selenized yeast, and vitamin E (BET + AOX). Heat stress increased the rectal temperature (p < 0.001), respiration rate (p < 0.001), decreased blood pCO2 (p = 0.002), and increased blood pH (p = 0.02), which indicated the HS broilers had respiratory alkalosis. Final body weight was decreased by HS (p < 0.001), whereas it was improved with BET (p = 0.05). Heat stress reduced cooking loss (p = 0.007) and no effect on drip loss, while BET decreased the drip loss (p = 0.01). Heat stress reduced the myofibril fragmentation index (p < 0.001) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.001), while these were improved with the combination of BET + AOX (p = 0.003). In conclusion, BET overall improved growth rates and product quality in this small university study, whereas some additional benefits were provided by AOX on product quality in both TN and HS broilers.
ItemLC-ESI-QTOF/MS Characterisation of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Polyphenol-Rich Fruits and Vegetables and Their Potential Antioxidant ActivitiesGu, C ; Howell, K ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI, 2019-09-01)Polyphenols are naturally occurring compounds found largely in fruits and vegetables. The antioxidant properties of these polyphenols including total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), tannin content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging abilities and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured among sixteen (16) plant foods (mango, blueberry, strawberry, black carrot, raspberry, dark grapes, garlic, ginger, onion, cherry, plum, apple, papaya, peach, pear and apricot) by modifying, standardising and translating existing antioxidant methods using a 96-well plate reader. Eighteen targeted phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterised and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-photometric diode array (HPLC-PDA) and verified by modifying an existing method of liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionisation triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS). While most of these compounds were accurately detected by the HPLC-PDA at a low concentration, a few polyphenols in low concentrations could be only be characterised using the LC-ESI-QTOF/MS method. Our results showed that mango possessed the highest overall antioxidant activity, phenolic acid and flavonoid content among the selected fruits. Factor analysis (FA) and Pearson's correlation tests showed high correlations among ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and phenolic acids, implying the comparable capabilities of scavenging the DPPH/ABTS free radicals and reducing ferric ions from the antioxidant compounds in the samples. Phenolic acids contributed significantly to the antioxidant activities, and flavonoids contributed more to tannin content based on the correlations. Overall, methods modified and standardized in this study can provide better understanding of high throughput technologies and increase the reliability of antioxidant data of different plant foods.
ItemLC-ESI-QTOF/MS Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Palm Fruits (Jelly and Fishtail Palm) and Their Potential Antioxidant ActivitiesMa, C ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI AG, 2019-12-20)Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and juniper berries (Juniperus communis L.) are two important medicinal plants widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries due to their strong antioxidant capacity, which is attributed to the presence of polyphenols. The present study is conducted to comprehensively characterize polyphenols from hops and juniper berries using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) to assess their antioxidant capacity. For polyphenol estimation, total phenolic content, flavonoids and tannins were measured, while for antioxidant capacity, three different antioxidant assays including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation decolorization assay and the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used. Hops presented the higher phenolic content (23.11 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) which corresponded to its strong antioxidant activity as compared to the juniper berries. Using LC-ESI-QTOF/MS, a total of 148 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in juniper and hops, among which phenolic acids (including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids) and flavonoids (mainly anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavonoids) were the main polyphenols, which may contribute to their antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the HPLC quantitative analysis showed that both samples had a high concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids. In the HPLC quantification, the predominant phenolic acids in hops and juniper berries were chlorogenic acid (16.48 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) and protocatechuic acid (11.46 ± 0.03 mg/g dw), respectively. The obtained results highlight the importance of hops and juniper berries as a rich source of functional ingredients in different food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries.