Agriculture and Food Systems - Research Publications

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    Seaweed Phenolics as Natural Antioxidants, Aquafeed Additives, Veterinary Treatments and Cross-Linkers for Microencapsulation
    Gunathilake, T ; Akanbi, TO ; Suleria, HAR ; Nalder, TD ; Francis, DS ; Barrow, CJ (MDPI, 2022-07-01)
    Driven by consumer demand and government policies, synthetic additives in aquafeed require substitution with sustainable and natural alternatives. Seaweeds have been shown to be a sustainable marine source of novel bioactive phenolic compounds that can be used in food, animal and aqua feeds, or microencapsulation applications. For example, phlorotannins are a structurally unique polymeric phenolic group exclusively found in brown seaweed that act through multiple antioxidant mechanisms. Seaweed phenolics show high affinities for binding proteins via covalent and non-covalent bonds and can have specific bioactivities due to their structures and associated physicochemical properties. Their ability to act as protein cross-linkers means they can be used to enhance the rheological and mechanical properties of food-grade delivery systems, such as microencapsulation, which is a new area of investigation illustrating the versatility of seaweed phenolics. Here we review how seaweed phenolics can be used in a range of applications, with reference to their bioactivity and structural properties.
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    Phytochemicals, Nutrition, Metabolism, Bioavailability, and Health Benefits in Lettuce-A Comprehensive Review
    Shi, M ; Gu, J ; Wu, H ; Rauf, A ; Emran, TB ; Khan, Z ; Mitra, S ; Aljohani, ASM ; Alhumaydhi, FA ; Al-Awthan, YS ; Bahattab, O ; Thiruvengadam, M ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI, 2022-06-01)
    Lettuce is one of the most famous leafy vegetables worldwide with lots of applications from food to other specific uses. There are different types in the lettuce group for consumers to choose from. Additionally, lettuce is an excellent source of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, and chlorophyll with related health benefits. At the same time, nutrient composition and antioxidant compounds are different between lettuce varieties, especially for green and red lettuce types. The benefit of lettuce consumption depends on its composition, particularly antioxidants, which can function as nutrients. The health benefits rely on their biochemical effect when reaching the bloodstream. Some components can be released from the food matrix and altered in the digestive system. Indeed, the bioaccessibility of lettuce is measuring the quantity of these compounds released from the food matrix during digestion, which is important for health-promoting features. Extraction of bioactive compounds is one of the new trends observed in lettuce and is necessarily used for several application fields. Therefore, this review aims to demonstrate the nutritional value of lettuce and its pharmacological properties. Due to their bioaccessibility and bioavailability, the consumer will be able to comprehensively understand choosing a healthier lettuce diet. The common utilization pattern of lettuce extracted nutrients will also be summarized for further direction.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS characterization of phenolic compounds from Prosopis farcta (Banks & Sol.) JFMacbr. and their potential antioxidant activities
    Sharifi-Rad, J ; Zhong, J ; Ayatollahi, SA ; Kobarfard, F ; Faizi, M ; Khosravi-Dehaghi, N ; Suleria, HAR (C M B ASSOC, 2021-01-01)
    Prosopis farcta (Banks & Sol.) J.F.Macbr. is an emerging medicinal plant containing a diverse array of phytochemicals, including protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre, alkaloids, fatty acids, glycosides, and polyphenols, with strong antioxidant potential. However, the screening and characterization of phenolic compounds in P. farcta is limited. This study is conducted to determine the polyphenol contents and their antioxidant activity in P. farcta leaves samples via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA). Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total tannins content (TTC) were determined for polyphenol estimation. The antioxidant properties were measured by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 2,2'-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), and 2,2"²-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS was used to identify and characterize 47 phenolic compounds, which mainly included phenolic acids (13), flavonoids (28), other polyphenols (4), lignans (1), and stilbenes (1). According to HPLC-PDA quantification, chlorogenic acid (9.78 ± 2.15 mg/g dw) was the most abundant phenolic acid, while the main flavonoids included catechin (12.73 ± 1.29 mg/g dw) and kaempferol (7.93 ± 1.47 mg/g dw). The study demonstrated the significance of P. farcta as a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity that can be widely used in food, beverage, feed, and pharmaceutical applications.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS characterization of phenolic compounds from Pyracantha coccinea M.Roem. and their antioxidant capacity
    Sharifi-Rad, J ; Song, S ; Ali, A ; Subbiah, V ; Taheri, Y ; Suleria, HAR (C M B ASSOC, 2021-01-01)
    Pyracantha coccinea M.Roem. is considered as an important medicinal plant contributing remarkably to health and medicinal benefits. This is attributed to the presence of abundant polyphenols with powerful antioxidant properties. However, little research has been studied on the comprehensive identification and characterization of the phenolic compounds in areal parts of P. coccinea.  This study aimed to investigate, characterize, and quantify the phenolic profiles of P. coccinea through liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA. Further, it showed a significantly higher value in total phenolic content (TPC) than that of total flavonoids (TFC) and tannins (TTC). As for antioxidant capacities, P. coccinea presented the highest activity in ABTS (7.12 ± 0.25 mg AAE/g dw) compared with DPPH, FRAP, and TAC assays. The LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS analysis detected 28 phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids (12), flavonoids (13), other polyphenols (2), and lignans (1) in P. coccinea samples. The results from HPLC-PDA indicated the chlorogenic acid (11.49 ± 1.89 mg/g) was the most abundant phenolic acid, while kaempferol (14.67 ± 2.17 mg/g) was the predominant flavonoid in P. coccinea. This research confirms the benefits of the P. coccinea plant as a potential source of natural antioxidants for the food and pharmaceutical industries.
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    Natural Resources for Human Health: A New Interdisciplinary Journal Dedicated to Natural Sciences
    Aggarwal, BB ; Bender, O ; Belwal, T ; Camps, I ; Acuña, CLC ; Cincinelli, A ; de Albuquerque, RDDG ; Ferrante, C ; Kamal, MA ; Khan, SU ; Kim, IH ; Kulkarni, MG ; Lv, H ; Mi, S ; Mocan, A ; Mollica, A ; Ndhlala, AR ; Ördög, V ; Popović-Djordjević, J ; Rakmai, J ; Visweswara Rao, P ; Sarker, SD ; Sawicka, B ; Sethi, G ; Silva, AS ; Šmejkal, K ; Rasul Suleria, HA ; Tomczyk, M ; Wan, C ; Wang, D ; Wang, R ; Wei, Z-J ; Xiao, J ; Xu, J ; Yu, Z ; Zengin, G ; Simal-Gandara, J (Visagaa Publishing House, 2021-08-19)
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    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) as miracle food with special reference to therapeutic and nutraceuticals perspective
    Khalid, W ; Arshad, MS ; Imran, M ; Ahmad, RS ; Imran, A ; Qaisrani, TB ; Asghar, Z ; Husain, A ; Anjum, FM ; Suleria, HAR (WILEY, 2021-11-05)
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    Phenolic Profiling of Berries Waste and Determination of Their Antioxidant Potential
    Jiang, Y ; Subbiah, V ; Wu, H ; Bk, A ; Sharifi-Rad, J ; Suleria, HAR ; Elfalleh, W (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    Berries waste is a major issue in Australia’s annual food wastage, which can reach 7.3 million tonnes. This study assessed the phenolic content and antioxidant potential of four fruit berry wastes, including blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum), blackberries (Rubus spp.), raspberries (Rubus idaeus), and strawberries (Fragaria spp.), followed by their characterization and quantification. Blueberry wastes were high in phenolic content (total phenolic content: 1.97 ± 0.16 mg GAE/gF.W; total flavonoid content: 220.43 ± 13.15 μg QE/gF.W; total tannins content: 16.47 ± 0.98 μg CE/gF.W), and antioxidant potentials are 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl: 2.23 ± 0.17 mg AAE/gF.W; 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid): 1.79 ± 0.09 mg AAE/gF.W; ferric reducing antioxidant power: 68.71 ± 11.11 μg AAE/gF.W (total antioxidant capacity: 1.22 ± 0.03 mg AAE/gF.W). The LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS analysis identified 87 compounds from blueberry (57), strawberry (40), raspberry (47), and blackberry wastes (27). Indicated by HPLC quantification, blueberry wastes had higher levels of phenolic acid (syringic acid and coumaric acid) and flavonoid (kaempferol and kaempfero l-3-glucoside). Our study reported that phenolics from berry wastes could be utilized in different food, feed, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS Characterization and Estimation of the Antioxidant Potential of Phenolic Compounds from Different Parts of the Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Seed and Rhizome
    Zhu, Z ; Zhong, B ; Yang, Z ; Zhao, W ; Shi, L ; Aziz, A ; Rauf, A ; Aljohani, ASM ; Alhumaydhi, FA ; Suleria, HAR (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2022-05-03)
    Edible lotus (Nelumbo nucifera G.) is widely consumed in Asian countries and treated as a functional food and traditional medicinal herb due to its abundant bioactive compounds. Lotus rhizome peels, rhizome knots, and seed embryos are important byproducts and processing waste of edible lotus (Nelumbo nucifera G.) with commercial significance. Nevertheless, the comprehensive phenolic profiling of different parts of lotus is still scarce. Thus, this study aimed to review the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential in lotus seeds (embryo and cotyledon) and rhizomes (peel, knot, and pulp) grown in Australia. In the phenolic content and antioxidant potential estimation assays by comparing to the corresponding reference standards, the lotus seed embryo exhibited the highest total phenolic content (10.77 ± 0.66 mg GAE/gf.w.), total flavonoid content (1.61 ± 0.03 mg QE/gf.w.), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (9.66 ± 0.10 mg AAE/gf.w.), 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) scavenging activity (14.35 ± 0.20 mg AAE/gf.w.), and total antioxidant capacity (6.46 ± 0.30 mg AAE/g), while the highest value of ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity and total tannin content was present in the lotus rhizome knot (2.30 ± 0.13 mg AAE/gf.w.). A total of 86 phenolic compounds were identified in five parts of lotus by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS), including phenolic acids (20), flavonoids (51), lignans (3), stilbenes (2), and other polyphenols (10). The most phenolic compounds, reaching up to 68%, were present in the lotus seed embryo (59). Furthermore, the lotus rhizome peel and lotus seed embryo exhibit significantly higher contents of selected polyphenols than other lotus parts according to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification analysis. The results highlighted that byproducts and processing waste of edible lotus are rich sources of phenolic compounds, which may be good candidates for further exploitation and utilization in food, animal feeding, and pharmaceutical industries.
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    Effect of Grape Marc Added Diet on Live Weight Gain, Blood Parameters, Nitrogen Excretion, and Behaviour of Sheep
    Wu, H ; Zhang, P ; Zhang, F ; Shishir, MSR ; Chauhan, SS ; Rugoho, I ; Suleria, H ; Zhao, G ; Cullen, B ; Cheng, L (MDPI, 2022-02-01)
    A 39-day field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of grape marc (GM) feeding on sheep productivity, health, and environmental sustainability. Forty merino sheep were divided into two dietary groups, each having five replications (n = 4 sheep/replication). Experimental diet consisted of: (i) control: 55% lucerne hay + 40% wheat grain + 5% faba bean; (ii) GM treatment: control diet with 20% replaced by GM on a dry matter (DM) basis. The GM treatment contained 2-10% higher phytochemical contents than the control. The DMI from the GM treatment was 15% higher than the control (p < 0.001). No difference was found in sheep live weight gain, behaviour, and quality between groups (p > 0.05). No difference was found in total faecal production, faecal organic matter, and nitrogen contents (p > 0.05) and parasitic egg count. The GM treatment led to higher nitrogen intake (23.1 vs. 27.2 g/d) and faecal nitrogen excretion (6.3 vs. 8.7 g/d) compared to the control. Urinary creatinine, allantoin, and purine derivatives were lower in the GM treatment than control (p < 0.05). However, both groups had similar purine derivatives/DMI (i.e., indicator of rumen microbial protein synthesis efficiency; p > 0.05). Overall, the results showed that GM can replace 20% of the control ration to maintain sheep productivity, health, and environmental sustainability.
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    Papaver Plants: Current Insights on Phytochemical and Nutritional Composition Along with Biotechnological Applications
    Butnariu, M ; Quispe, C ; Herrera-Bravo, J ; Pentea, M ; Sarac, I ; Kusumler, AS ; Ozcelik, B ; Painuli, S ; Semwal, P ; Imran, M ; Gondal, TA ; Emamzadeh-Yazdi, S ; Lapava, N ; Yousaf, Z ; Kumar, M ; Eid, AH ; Al-Dhaheri, Y ; Suleria, HAR ; del Mar Contreras, M ; Sharifi-Rad, J ; Cho, WC ; Hussain, T (HINDAWI LTD, 2022-02-03)
    The genus Papaver is highly esteemed in the pharmacy industry, in the culinary field, and as ornamental plants. These plants are also valued in traditional medicine. Among all Papaver species, Papaver somniferum L. (opium poppy) is the most important species in supplying phytochemicals for the formulation of drugs, mainly alkaloids like morphine, codeine, rhoeadine, thebaine, and papaverine. In addition, Papaver plants present other types of phytochemicals, which altogether are responsible for its biological activities. Therefore, this review covers the phytochemical composition of Papaver plants, including alkaloids, phenolic compounds, and essential oils. The traditional uses are reviewed along with their pharmacological activities. Moreover, safety aspects are reported to provide a deep overview of the pharmacology potential of this genus. An updated search was carried out in databases such as Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and PubMed to retrieve the information. Overall, this genus is a rich source of alkaloids of different types and also contains interesting phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, flavonols, and the characteristic indole derivatives nudicaulins. Among other pharmacological properties, numerous preclinical studies have been published about the analgesic, anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities of Papaver plants. Although it highlights the significant impact of this genus for the treatment of a variety of diseases and conditions, as a future prospect, characterization works accompanying preclinical studies are required along with clinical and toxicology studies to establish a correlation between the scientific and traditional knowledge.