Agriculture and Food Systems - Research Publications

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    Plant Secondary Metabolites for Human Health Extraction of Bioactive Compounds
    Goyal, MR ; Joy, PP ; Suleria, H (Apple Academic Press, 2019)
    This new book deals with recent advanced research on natural products and health-promoting foods that work to reduce the risk of diseases while enhancing overall well-being.
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    Human Health Benefits of Plant Bioactive Compounds Potentials and Prospects
    Goyal, MR ; Suleria, HAR (Apple Academic Press, 2019)
    Focusing on the importance of functional foods and their secondary metabolites for human health, this volume presents new insights with scientific evidence on the use of functional foods in the treatment of certain diseases.
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    Dioscorea Plants: A Genus Rich in Vital Nutra-pharmaceuticals-A Review
    Salehi, B ; Sener, B ; Kilic, M ; Sharifi-Rad, J ; Naz, R ; Yousaf, Z ; Mudau, FN ; Fokou, PVT ; Ezzat, SM ; El Bishbishy, MH ; Taheri, Y ; Lucariello, G ; Durazzo, A ; Lucarini, M ; Suleria, HAR ; Santini, A (SHAHEED BEHESHTI UNIV, SCH PHARMACY, 2019-09-01)
    Dioscorea species, known as "Yams," belong to family Dioscoreaceae. This genus consists of more than 600 species distributed from Africa, Asia, the Caribbean's South America, and the South Pacific islands. Their organoleptic properties make them the most widely used carbohydrate food and dietary supplements. The underground and/or aerial tubers represent valuable sources of proteins, fats, and vitamins for millions of people in West Africa. This review gives a shot of secondary metabolites of Dioscorea plants, including steroids, clerodane diterpenes, quinones, cyanidins, phenolics, diarylheptanoids, and nitrogen-containing compounds. This review collected the evidence on biological properties of description Dioscorea, including in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Dioscorea species contain promising bioactive molecules i.e. diosgenin that support their different biological properties, including antioxidant, hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, anti- antimicrobial, inflammatory, antiproliferative, androgenic, estrogenic, and contraceptive drugs. Indeed, besides its nutrient values, Dioscorea is a potential source of bioactive substances of interest in the prevention/treatment of several diseases, and thus represents a great challenge in developing countries. However, ethnomedicinal potential should be validated and further researches on pharmacological properties and phytochemical composition should be carried out. Particularly, doing some studies to convert the preclinical results to clinical efficacy should be guaranteed. Dioscorea, Food plant, Traditional use, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological activities.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Profiling of Australian Mango Peel By-Product Polyphenols and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities
    Peng, D ; Zahid, HF ; Ajlouni, S ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI AG, 2019-10-18)
    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important fruits in the world. Mango peel is an important by-product that is rich in polyphenols and it could have high economic value if it is e_ectively utilized. Phenolic characterization is an essential step in the commercial utilization of mango peel by-products as food ingredients. Herein, qualitative and quantitative analyses of two Australian mango peel “Keitt” and “Kensington Pride” (K&P) by-products were conducted while using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). A total of 98 polyphenols compounds were tentatively identified in both Keitt peel and K&P peel extracts, with greater concentrations of these compounds being detected in Keitt peel. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and a total tannin content (TTC) were determined. The antioxidant activity of mango peel by-products was determined while using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Keitt peel contained higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins and had higher antioxidant capacity in DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays as compared to K&P peel. In HPLC-PDA quantification, the predominant phenolic compounds in Keitt peel and K&P peel were catechin (62.32 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w.) and syringic acid (17.78 _ 0.01 mg/gd.w).
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    Growth Performance and Characterization of Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Betaine and Antioxidants under Cyclic Heat Stress
    Shakeri, M ; Cottrell, JJ ; Wilkinson, S ; Le, HH ; Suleria, HAR ; Warner, RD ; Dunshea, FR (MDPI, 2019-09-01)
    Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative stress, which compromises broiler performance and meat quality. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary antioxidants could be used as an amelioration strategy. Seventy-two day-old-male Ross-308 chicks were exposed to either thermoneutral or cyclical heat stress conditions. Diets were either control commercial diet (CON), CON plus betaine (BET), or with a combination of betaine, selenized yeast, and vitamin E (BET + AOX). Heat stress increased the rectal temperature (p < 0.001), respiration rate (p < 0.001), decreased blood pCO2 (p = 0.002), and increased blood pH (p = 0.02), which indicated the HS broilers had respiratory alkalosis. Final body weight was decreased by HS (p < 0.001), whereas it was improved with BET (p = 0.05). Heat stress reduced cooking loss (p = 0.007) and no effect on drip loss, while BET decreased the drip loss (p = 0.01). Heat stress reduced the myofibril fragmentation index (p < 0.001) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.001), while these were improved with the combination of BET + AOX (p = 0.003). In conclusion, BET overall improved growth rates and product quality in this small university study, whereas some additional benefits were provided by AOX on product quality in both TN and HS broilers.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Characterisation of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Polyphenol-Rich Fruits and Vegetables and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities
    Gu, C ; Howell, K ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI, 2019-09-01)
    Polyphenols are naturally occurring compounds found largely in fruits and vegetables. The antioxidant properties of these polyphenols including total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), tannin content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging abilities and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured among sixteen (16) plant foods (mango, blueberry, strawberry, black carrot, raspberry, dark grapes, garlic, ginger, onion, cherry, plum, apple, papaya, peach, pear and apricot) by modifying, standardising and translating existing antioxidant methods using a 96-well plate reader. Eighteen targeted phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterised and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-photometric diode array (HPLC-PDA) and verified by modifying an existing method of liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionisation triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS). While most of these compounds were accurately detected by the HPLC-PDA at a low concentration, a few polyphenols in low concentrations could be only be characterised using the LC-ESI-QTOF/MS method. Our results showed that mango possessed the highest overall antioxidant activity, phenolic acid and flavonoid content among the selected fruits. Factor analysis (FA) and Pearson's correlation tests showed high correlations among ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and phenolic acids, implying the comparable capabilities of scavenging the DPPH/ABTS free radicals and reducing ferric ions from the antioxidant compounds in the samples. Phenolic acids contributed significantly to the antioxidant activities, and flavonoids contributed more to tannin content based on the correlations. Overall, methods modified and standardized in this study can provide better understanding of high throughput technologies and increase the reliability of antioxidant data of different plant foods.
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    LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Palm Fruits (Jelly and Fishtail Palm) and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities
    Ma, C ; Dunshea, FR ; Suleria, HAR (MDPI AG, 2019-12-20)
    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and juniper berries (Juniperus communis L.) are two important medicinal plants widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries due to their strong antioxidant capacity, which is attributed to the presence of polyphenols. The present study is conducted to comprehensively characterize polyphenols from hops and juniper berries using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) to assess their antioxidant capacity. For polyphenol estimation, total phenolic content, flavonoids and tannins were measured, while for antioxidant capacity, three different antioxidant assays including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation decolorization assay and the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used. Hops presented the higher phenolic content (23.11 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) which corresponded to its strong antioxidant activity as compared to the juniper berries. Using LC-ESI-QTOF/MS, a total of 148 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in juniper and hops, among which phenolic acids (including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids) and flavonoids (mainly anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavonoids) were the main polyphenols, which may contribute to their antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the HPLC quantitative analysis showed that both samples had a high concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids. In the HPLC quantification, the predominant phenolic acids in hops and juniper berries were chlorogenic acid (16.48 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) and protocatechuic acid (11.46 ± 0.03 mg/g dw), respectively. The obtained results highlight the importance of hops and juniper berries as a rich source of functional ingredients in different food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries.
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    Cashew nut allergy; immune health challenge
    Tufail, T ; Saeed, F ; Ul Ain, HB ; Niaz, B ; Afzaal, M ; Din, A ; Rasul Suleria, HA (Elsevier, 2019-04)
    Background Cashew nut allergy is a significant tree nut allergy that is increasing gradually and becoming serious health issue these days. Allergens responsible for cashew nut allergy are highly potent and for some people, these reactions have the potential to be severe and even life-threatening (anaphylaxis). Increased consumption of cashew nuts and a change in eating and cooking may be responsible. It's time to spread the knowledge and awareness about cashew nut allergy among society, clinics and development of clinical confession. Scope and approach In recent era, various researches regarding cashew nut allergy are under consideration. In this comprehensive review, investigations were carried to identify aspects of cashew nut allergy including its prevalence, characteristics, processing effects, different allergens, diagnosis and management. Key findings and conclusion Main etiology is the utilization of minor quantity of cashew nut allergens like Ana-o-3, Ana-o-1 and Ana-o-2, proposed to be very powerful as compared to other tree nuts. Its prevalence is increasing especially in children. Several methods like oral immunotherapy, adrenaline auto-injector device and enzymatic processing are very helpful in the treatment of this emerging type of allergy. Moreover, labelling of foods products having cashew nuts plays significant role in prevention of cashew nut allergy. This information concludes that allergen of cashew nut allergy may be powerful that is chronic cause of many immune disorders.
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    Oxidative stability and Sensoric acceptability of functional fish meat product supplemented with plant-based polyphenolic optimal extracts.
    Ali, M ; Imran, M ; Nadeem, M ; Khan, MK ; Sohaib, M ; Suleria, HAR ; Bashir, R (BioMed Central, 2019-01-31)
    BACKGROUND: Fish meat and its products are usually accepted as good source of biological high value food components and especially for polyunsaturated fatty acids. The quality of fish meat products is considered to be decreased by the lipid peroxidation which leads to reduction in nutritional quality, financial loss and severe health problems. Many tactics are present to reserve their quality and safety. In the present investigation, the extraction and supplementation of optimal total polyphenol extracts (TPC) from vegetable and fruit by-products was explored for lipids oxidative stability and sensoric acceptability of functional fish product samples. METHODS: Vegetable and fruit by-products (cabbage leaves and banana peels) were collected from local fruits and vegetables processing industries. A 3-level five factor Box-Behnken design was used to study the effect of extraction/sonication temperature (°C), amplitude level, water/meal ratio, extraction/sonication time (minutes) and pH conditions for maximum yield of TPC from dried vegetable and fruit samples. The TPC samples were analyzed for chemical composition (total polyphenols, cyanogenic contents and tannins). Natural TPC extracts were supplemented at different concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) to fish meat for preparation of different meat ball samples. The fish meat product samples without supplementation of TPC extract were kept as control. The partial/parfrying of the products was carried out to determine the lipid stability (peroxide value and free fatty acids) stored at refrigerator (for 9 days) and at - 18 °C in a freezer for a storage period of 60-days. The sensoric analysis (color, flavor and overall acceptability) was performed at different storage intervals for experimental treatments. RESULTS: The percent values of TPC yield from cabbage leave and banana peel samples ranged from a from minimum value of 9.8 ± 0.12% to a maximum value of 19.8 ± 0.15% for cabbage leaves and minimum value of 15.55 ± 0.13% to a maximum value of 24.4 ± 0.17% for banana peels, respectively. The results revealed that extraction conditions significantly affect the TPC yield from cabbage leaves and banana peels. The cabbage leaves and banana peels contain up to 4.8% total phenolics, cyanogenic compounds (1.44 - 1.47 ± 0.14) and tannins (6.55-7.90 ± 0.22). Peroxide values (meqO2 /kg) of meat balls treated with TPC extracts at 4 °C were in the range of 1.31 ± 0.12 to 3.10 ± 0.20 while at - 18 °C ranged was found 1.31 ± 0.12 to 1.55 ± 0.17, respectively. Peroxide values of all the treatments increased at the end of second interval then decreased at the end of last storage interval. Peroxide values of all treatments were higher and significantly different at the beginning and the end of the storage period (p <  0.05). In a similar way, free fatty acids and moisture content values trend was recorded for all experimental treatments. Sensory scores of fish product samples for color, flavor and overall acceptability showed a significant difference in sensory scores at refrigeration temperatures where sensory scores of fish product samples decreased significantly (p <  0.05) throughout refrigeration storage. Whereas, the sensory scores at the - 18 °C shows the good sensory characteristics, relatively. CONCLUSIONS: Phenolic extracts containing antioxidant status can interact with free lipidperoxy or lipidoxy free radicals (formed in result of lipid oxidation) and hence stopping their further self-breakdown. Plant-based phenolic extracts can be used to decrease oxidation process and increase the shelf life of fish meat products. Additional studies should be undertaken to determine the maximal shelf life of food products supplemented with different plant-based polyphenol extracts and treatment of nutritional disorders through their absorption, metabolism and distribution pattern into biological tissues.