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    Genetic structure of Cercospora beticola populations on Beta vulgaris in New York and Hawaii
    Vaghefi, N ; Nelson, SC ; Kikkert, JR ; Pethybridge, SJ (NATURE RESEARCH, 2017-05-11)
    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by Cercospora beticola, is a major disease of Beta vulgaris worldwide. No sexual stage is known for C. beticola but in its asexual form it overwinters on infected plant debris as pseudostromata, and travels short distances by rain splash-dispersed conidiospores. Cercospora beticola infects a broad range of host species and may be seedborne. The relative contribution of these inoculum sources to CLS epidemics on table beet is not well understood. Pathogen isolates collected from table beet, Swiss chard and common lambsquarters in mixed-cropping farms and monoculture fields in New York and Hawaii, USA, were genotyped (n = 600) using 12 microsatellite markers. All isolates from CLS symptoms on lambsquarters were identified as C. chenopodii. Sympatric populations of C. beticola derived from Swiss chard and table beet were not genetically differentiated. Results suggested that local (within field) inoculum sources may be responsible for the initiation of CLS epidemics in mixed-cropping farms, whereas external sources of inoculum may be contributing to CLS epidemics in the monoculture fields in New York. New multiplex PCR assays were developed for mating-type determination for C. beticola. Implications of these findings for disease management are discussed.
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    Fungal Planet description sheets: 951-1041
    Crous, PW ; Wingfield, MJ ; Lombard, L ; Roets, F ; Swart, WJ ; Alvarado, P ; Carnegie, AJ ; Moreno, G ; Luangsa-ard, J ; Thangavel, R ; Alexandrova, AV ; Baseia, IG ; Bellanger, J-M ; Bessette, AE ; Bessette, AR ; De la Pena-Lastra, S ; Garcia, D ; Gene, J ; Pham, THG ; Heykoop, M ; Malysheva, E ; Malysheva, V ; Martin, MP ; Morozova, OV ; Noisripoom, W ; Overton, BE ; Rea, AE ; Sewall, BJ ; Smith, ME ; Smyth, CW ; Tasanathai, K ; Visagie, CM ; Adamcik, S ; Alves, A ; Andrade, JP ; Aninat, MJ ; Araujo, RVB ; Bordallo, JJ ; Boufleur, T ; Baroncelli, R ; Barreto, RW ; Bolin, J ; Cabero, J ; Cabon, M ; Cafa, G ; Caffot, MLH ; Cai, L ; Carlavilla, JR ; Chavez, R ; de Castro, RRL ; Delgat, L ; Deschuyteneer, D ; Dios, MM ; Dominguez, LS ; Evans, HC ; Eyssartier, G ; Ferreira, BW ; Figueiredo, CN ; Liu, F ; Fournier, J ; Galli-Terasawa, LV ; Gil-Duran, C ; Glienke, C ; Goncalves, MFM ; Gryta, H ; Guarro, J ; Himaman, W ; Hywel-Jones, N ; Iturrieta-Gonzalez, I ; Ivanushkina, NE ; Jargeat, P ; Khalid, AN ; Khan, J ; Kiran, M ; Kiss, L ; Kochkina, GA ; Kolarik, M ; Kubatova, A ; Lodge, DJ ; Loizides, M ; Luque, D ; Manjon, JL ; Marbach, PAS ; Massola, NS ; Mata, M ; Miller, AN ; Mongkolsamrit, S ; Moreau, P-A ; Morte, A ; Mujic, A ; Navarro-Rodenas, A ; Nemeth, MZ ; Nobrega, TF ; Novakova, A ; Olariaga, I ; Ozerskaya, SM ; Palma, MA ; Petters-Vandresen, DAL ; Piontelli, E ; Popov, ES ; Rodriguez, A ; Requejo, O ; Rodrigues, ACM ; Rong, IH ; Roux, J ; Seifert, KA ; Silva, BDB ; Sklenar, F ; Smith, JA ; Sousa, JO ; Souza, HG ; De Souza, JT ; Svec, K ; Tanchaud, P ; Tanney, JB ; Terasawa, F ; Thanakitpipattana, D ; Torres-Garcia, D ; Vaca, I ; Vaghefi, N ; van Iperen, AL ; Vasilenko, OV ; Verbeken, A ; Yilmaz, N ; Zamora, JC ; Zapata, M ; Jurjevic, Z ; Groenewald, JZ (RIJKSHERBARIUM, 2019-12-01)
    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica, Apenidiella antarctica from permafrost, Cladosporium fildesense from an unidentified marine sponge. Argentina, Geastrum wrightii on humus in mixed forest. Australia, Golovinomyces glandulariae on Glandularia aristigera, Neoanungitea eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Teratosphaeria corymbiicola on leaves of Corymbia ficifolia, Xylaria eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus radiata. Brazil, Bovista psammophila on soil, Fusarium awaxy on rotten stalks of Zea mays, Geastrum lanuginosum on leaf litter covered soil, Hermetothecium mikaniae-micranthae (incl. Hermetothecium gen. nov.) on Mikania micrantha, Penicillium reconvexovelosoi in soil, Stagonosporopsis vannaccii from pod of Glycine max. British Virgin Isles, Lactifluus guanensis on soil. Canada, Sorocybe oblongispora on resin of Picea rubens. Chile, Colletotrichum roseum on leaves of Lapageria rosea. China, Setophoma caverna from carbonatite in Karst cave. Colombia, Lareunionomyces eucalypticola on leaves of Eucalyptus grandis. Costa Rica, Psathyrella pivae on wood. Cyprus, Clavulina iris on calcareous substrate. France, Chromosera ambigua and Clavulina iris var. occidentalis on soil. French West Indies, Helminthosphaeria hispidissima on dead wood. Guatemala, Talaromyces guatemalensis in soil. Malaysia, Neotracylla pini (incl. Tracyllales ord. nov. and Neotracylla gen. nov.) and Vermiculariopsiella pini on needles of Pinus tecunumanii. New Zealand, Neoconiothyrium viticola on stems of Vitis vinifera, Parafenestella pittospori on Pittosporum tenuifolium, Pilidium novae-zelandiae on Phoenix sp. Pakistan, Russula quercus-floribundae on forest floor. Portugal, Trichoderma aestuarinum from saline water. Russia, Pluteus liliputianus on fallen branch of deciduous tree, Pluteus spurius on decaying deciduous wood or soil. South Africa, Alloconiothyrium encephalarti, Phyllosticta encephalarticola and Neothyrostroma encephalarti (incl. Neothyrostroma gen. nov.) on leaves of Encephalartos sp., Chalara eucalypticola on leaf spots of Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla, Clypeosphaeria oleae on leaves of Olea capensis, Cylindrocladiella postalofficium on leaf litter of Sideroxylon inerme, Cylindromonium eugeniicola (incl. Cylindromonium gen. nov.) on leaf litter of Eugenia capensis, Cyphellophora goniomatis on leaves of Gonioma kamassi, Nothodactylaria nephrolepidis (incl. Nothodactylaria gen. nov. and Nothodactylariaceae fam. nov.) on leaves of Nephrolepis exaltata, Falcocladium eucalypti and Gyrothrix eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., Gyrothrix oleae on leaves of Olea capensis subsp. macrocarpa, Harzia metrosideri on leaf litter of Metrosideros sp., Hippopotamyces phragmitis (incl. Hippopotamyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Phragmites australis, Lectera philenopterae on Philenoptera violacea, Leptosillia mayteni on leaves of Maytenus heterophylla, Lithohypha aloicola and Neoplatysporoides aloes on leaves of Aloe sp., Millesimomyces rhoicissi (incl. Millesimomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Rhoicissus digitata, Neodevriesia strelitziicola on leaf litter of Strelitzia nicolai, Neokirramyces syzygii (incl. Neokirramyces gen. nov.) on leaf spots of Syzygium sp., Nothoramichloridium perseae (incl. Nothoramichloridium gen. nov. and Anungitiomycetaceae fam. nov.) on leaves of Persea americana, Paramycosphaerella watsoniae on leaf spots of Watsonia sp., Penicillium cuddlyae from dog food, Podocarpomyces knysnanus (incl. Podocarpomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Podocarpus falcatus, Pseudocercospora heteropyxidicola on leaf spots of Heteropyxis natalensis, Pseudopenidiella podocarpi, Scolecobasidium podocarpi and Ceramothyrium podocarpicola on leaves of Podocarpus latifolius, Scolecobasidium blechni on leaves of Blechnum capense, Stomiopeltis syzygii on leaves of Syzygium chordatum, Strelitziomyces knysnanus (incl. Strelitziomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Strelitzia alba, Talaromyces clemensii from rotting wood in goldmine, Verrucocladosporium visseri on Carpobrotus edulis. Spain, Boletopsis mediterraneensis on soil, Calycina cortegadensisi on a living twig of Castanea sativa, Emmonsiellopsis tuberculata in fluvial sediments, Mollisia cortegadensis on dead attached twig of Quercus robur, Psathyrella ovispora on soil, Pseudobeltrania lauri on leaf litter of Laurus azorica, Terfezia dunensis in soil, Tuber lucentum in soil, Venturia submersa on submerged plant debris. Thailand, Cordyceps jakajanicola on cicada nymph, Cordyceps kuiburiensis on spider, Distoseptispora caricis on leaves of Carex sp., Ophiocordyceps khonkaenensis on cicada nymph. USA, Cytosporella juncicola and Davidiellomyces juncicola on culms of Juncus effusus, Monochaetia massachusettsianum from air sample, Neohelicomyces melaleucae and Periconia neobrittanica on leaves of Melaleuca styphelioides × lanceolata, Pseudocamarosporium eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., Pseudogymnoascus lindneri from sediment in a mine, Pseudogymnoascus turneri from sediment in a railroad tunnel, Pulchroboletus sclerotiorum on soil, Zygosporium pseudomasonii on leaf of Serenoa repens. Vietnam, Boletus candidissimus and Veloporphyrellus vulpinus on soil. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes.
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    Draft genome sequence of Annulohypoxylon stygium, Aspergillus mulundensis, Berkeleyomyces basicola (syn. Thielaviopsis basicola), Ceratocystis smalleyi, two Cercospora beticola strains, Coleophoma cylindrospora, Fusarium fracticaudum, Phialophora cf. hyalina, and Morchella septimelata
    Wingfield, BD ; Bills, GF ; Dong, Y ; Huang, W ; Nel, WJ ; Swalarsk-Parry, BS ; Vaghefi, N ; Wilken, PM ; An, Z ; de Beer, ZW ; De Vos, L ; Chen, L ; Duong, TA ; Gao, Y ; Hammerbacher, A ; Kikkert, JR ; Li, Y ; Li, H ; Li, K ; Li, Q ; Liu, X ; Ma, X ; Naidool, K ; Pethybridge, SJ ; Sun, J ; Steenkamp, ET ; van der Nest, MA ; van Wyk, S ; Wingfield, MJ ; Xiong, C ; Yue, Q ; Zhang, X (BMC, 2018-06-01)
    Draft genomes of the species Annulohypoxylon stygium, Aspergillus mulundensis, Berkeleyomyces basicola (syn. Thielaviopsis basicola), Ceratocystis smalleyi, two Cercospora beticola strains, Coleophoma cylindrospora, Fusarium fracticaudum, Phialophora cf. hyalina and Morchella septimelata are presented. Both mating types (MAT1-1 and MAT1-2) of Cercospora beticola are included. Two strains of Coleophoma cylindrospora that produce sulfated homotyrosine echinocandin variants, FR209602, FR220897 and FR220899 are presented. The sequencing of Aspergillus mulundensis, Coleophoma cylindrospora and Phialophora cf. hyalina has enabled mapping of the gene clusters encoding the chemical diversity from the echinocandin pathways, providing data that reveals the complexity of secondary metabolism in these different species. Overall these genomes provide a valuable resource for understanding the molecular processes underlying pathogenicity (in some cases), biology and toxin production of these economically important fungi.
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    Increase in coleoptile length and establishment by Lcol-A1, a genetic locus with major effect in wheat
    Bovill, WD ; Hyles, J ; Zwart, AB ; Ford, BA ; Perera, G ; Phongkham, T ; Brooks, BJ ; Rebetzke, GJ ; Hayden, MJ ; Hunt, JR ; Spielmeyer, W (BMC, 2019-07-29)
    BACKGROUND: Good establishment is important for rapid leaf area development in wheat crops. Poor establishment results in fewer, later-emerging plants, reduced leaf area and tiller number. In addition, poorly established crops suffer from increased soil moisture loss through evaporation and greater competition from weeds while fewer spikes are produced which can reduce grain yield. By protecting the emerging first leaf, the coleoptile is critical for achieving good establishment, and its length and interaction with soil physical properties determine the ability of a cultivar to emerge from depth. RESULTS: Here we characterise a locus on chromosome 1AS, that increases coleoptile length in wheat, which we designate as Lcol-A1. We identified Lcol-A1 by bulked-segregant analysis and used a Halberd-derived population to fine map the gene to a 2 cM region, equivalent to 7 Mb on the IWGSC genome reference sequence of Chinese Spring (RefSeqv1.0). By sowing recently released cultivars and near-isogenic lines in the field at both conventional and deep sowing depths, we confirmed that Locl-A1 was associated with increased emergence from depth in the presence and absence of conventional dwarfing genes. Flanking markers IWB58229 and IWA710 were developed to assist breeders to select for long coleoptile wheats. CONCLUSIONS: Increased coleoptile length is sought in many global wheat production areas to improve crop emergence. The identification of the gene Lcol-A1, together with tools to allow wheat breeders to track the gene, will enable improvements to be made for this important trait.
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    Putative Iron-Sulfur Proteins Are Required for Hydrogen Consumption and Enhance Survival of Mycobacteria
    Islam, ZF ; Cordero, PRF ; Greening, C (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-11-22)
    Aerobic soil bacteria persist by scavenging molecular hydrogen (H2) from the atmosphere. This key process is the primary sink in the biogeochemical hydrogen cycle and supports the productivity of oligotrophic ecosystems. In Mycobacterium smegmatis, atmospheric H2 oxidation is catalyzed by two phylogenetically distinct [NiFe]-hydrogenases, Huc (group 2a) and Hhy (group 1h). However, it is currently unresolved how these enzymes transfer electrons derived from H2 oxidation into the aerobic respiratory chain. In this work, we used genetic approaches to confirm that two putative iron-sulfur cluster proteins encoded on the hydrogenase structural operons, HucE and HhyE, are required for H2 consumption in M. smegmatis. Sequence analysis show that these proteins, while homologous, fall into distinct phylogenetic clades and have distinct metal-binding motifs. H2 oxidation was reduced when the genes encoding these proteins were deleted individually and was eliminated when they were deleted in combination. In turn, the growth yield and long-term survival of these deletion strains was modestly but significantly reduced compared to the parent strain. In both biochemical and phenotypic assays, the mutant strains lacking the putative iron-sulfur proteins phenocopied those of hydrogenase structural subunit mutants. We hypothesize that these proteins mediate electron transfer between the catalytic subunits of the hydrogenases and the menaquinone pool of the M. smegmatis respiratory chain; however, other roles (e.g., in maturation) are also plausible and further work is required to resolve their role. The conserved nature of these proteins within most Hhy- or Huc-encoding organisms suggests that these proteins are important determinants of atmospheric H2 oxidation.
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    Two Chloroflexi classes independently evolved the ability to persist on atmospheric hydrogen and carbon monoxide
    Islam, ZF ; Cordero, PRF ; Feng, J ; Chen, Y-J ; Bay, SK ; Jirapanjawat, T ; Gleadow, RM ; Carere, CR ; Stott, MB ; Chiri, E ; Greening, C (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-07-01)
    Most aerobic bacteria exist in dormant states within natural environments. In these states, they endure adverse environmental conditions such as nutrient starvation by decreasing metabolic expenditure and using alternative energy sources. In this study, we investigated the energy sources that support persistence of two aerobic thermophilic strains of the environmentally widespread but understudied phylum Chloroflexi. A transcriptome study revealed that Thermomicrobium roseum (class Chloroflexia) extensively remodels its respiratory chain upon entry into stationary phase due to nutrient limitation. Whereas primary dehydrogenases associated with heterotrophic respiration were downregulated, putative operons encoding enzymes involved in molecular hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur compound oxidation were significantly upregulated. Gas chromatography and microsensor experiments showed that T. roseum aerobically respires H2 and CO at a range of environmentally relevant concentrations to sub-atmospheric levels. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the hydrogenases and carbon monoxide dehydrogenases mediating these processes are widely distributed in Chloroflexi genomes and have probably been horizontally acquired on more than one occasion. Consistently, we confirmed that the sporulating isolate Thermogemmatispora sp. T81 (class Ktedonobacteria) also oxidises atmospheric H2 and CO during persistence, though further studies are required to determine if these findings extend to mesophilic strains. This study provides axenic culture evidence that atmospheric CO supports bacterial persistence and reports the third phylum, following Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria, to be experimentally shown to mediate the biogeochemically and ecologically important process of atmospheric H2 oxidation. This adds to the growing body of evidence that atmospheric trace gases are dependable energy sources for bacterial persistence.
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    Atmospheric carbon monoxide oxidation is a widespread mechanism supporting microbial survival
    Cordero, PRF ; Bayly, K ; Leung, PM ; Huang, C ; Islam, ZF ; Schittenhelm, RB ; King, GM ; Greening, C (SPRINGERNATURE, 2019-11-01)
    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous atmospheric trace gas produced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Some aerobic bacteria can oxidize atmospheric CO and, collectively, they account for the net loss of ~250 teragrams of CO from the atmosphere each year. However, the physiological role, genetic basis, and ecological distribution of this process remain incompletely resolved. In this work, we addressed these knowledge gaps through culture-based and culture-independent work. We confirmed through shotgun proteomic and transcriptional analysis that the genetically tractable aerobic soil actinobacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis upregulates expression of a form I molydenum-copper carbon monoxide dehydrogenase by 50-fold when exhausted for organic carbon substrates. Whole-cell biochemical assays in wild-type and mutant backgrounds confirmed that this organism aerobically respires CO, including at sub-atmospheric concentrations, using the enzyme. Contrary to current paradigms on CO oxidation, the enzyme did not support chemolithoautotrophic growth and was dispensable for CO detoxification. However, it significantly enhanced long-term survival, suggesting that atmospheric CO serves a supplemental energy source during organic carbon starvation. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that atmospheric CO oxidation is widespread and an ancestral trait of CO dehydrogenases. Homologous enzymes are encoded by 685 sequenced species of bacteria and archaea, including from seven dominant soil phyla, and we confirmed genes encoding this enzyme are abundant and expressed in terrestrial and marine environments. On this basis, we propose a new survival-centric model for the evolution of aerobic CO oxidation and conclude that, like atmospheric H2, atmospheric CO is a major energy source supporting persistence of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in deprived or changeable environments.
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    DOCUMENTATION OF ETHNOVETERINARY PRACTICES IN DISTRICT JHANG, PAKISTAN
    Badar, N ; Iqbal, Z ; Sajid, MS ; Rizwan, HM ; Jabbar, A ; Babar, W ; Khan, MN ; Ahmed, A (PAKISTAN AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS FORUM, 2017-04-01)
    The study was conducted to document the plants used in the traditional veterinary practices in Jhang district of Pakistan. Rapid and participatory rural appraisal techniques were used for collection of information i.e. the interviews and focused group discussions were carried with 253 traditional veterinary healers for a period of one year. From the study area, 46 plant species representing 31 families were documented for the treatment of different infectious and non-infectious ailments. The most frequently reported (≥ 22% respondents) plants included: Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague, Capsicum annuum Linn, Vernonia anthelmintica L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, and Allium cepa Linn. Of 46 plants, 33 were indigenous. Materials other than plants are also used as adjunctive therapy for different ailments. A wide variation in the dose, vehicle, part of plant, mode of preparation and administration/application was observed. The efficacy claims and indications for different plants were quite conflicting. The traditional veterinary healers in the study area used diverse plant species in the veterinary practices with varying claims about their efficacies. Controlled studies for the validation of the plant usage are underway in the Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
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    Decreasing ammonia loss from an Australian pasture with the use of enhanced efficiency fertilizers
    Lam, SK ; Suter, H ; Bai, M ; Walker, C ; Mosier, AR ; van Grinsven, H ; Chen, D (Elsevier BV, 2019-11)
    Mitigating ammonia (NH3) volatilization from intensive pasture systems is critical for environmental sustainability. However, field-scale evaluation on the potential of enhanced efficiency fertilizers (e.g. urease inhibitors and controlled-release fertilizers) in mitigating NH3 volatilization is limited. Using a micrometeorological technique, we conducted two field trials to investigate the effects of Green UreaNV® (urea coated with the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide, NBPT) and polymer-coated urea (a controlled-release fertilizer) on NH3 volatilization from an intensive rainfed pasture in southern Australia. We found that NH3 volatilization from urea was 5.8 and 5.6 kg N ha–1, respectively, in the autumn and spring trials, equivalent to 11–12% of the applied urea in each season. The use of Green UreaNV® and polymer-coated urea decreased the cumulative NH3 volatilization by 45–55% and 80%, respectively. Taking into consideration the high environmental damage cost of NH3 as found in the European Union, we hypothesize that both Green UreaNV® and polymer-coated urea can be cost-effective in mitigating NH3 loss from this pasture. Our findings suggest that the extra cost of using these enhanced efficiency fertilizers for farmers is not compensated by the fertilizer N value of decreased NH3 loss. However, from a societal perspective the extra cost for Green UreaNV® is likely outweighed by reduced environmental cost of NH3. New fertilizer technology should be developed to improve the cost-effectiveness of polymer-coated urea to the farmers.
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    Lipopolysaccharide reduces gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression: role of RFamide-related peptide-3 and kisspeptin
    Lee, CY ; Li, S ; Li, XF ; Stalker, DAE ; Cooke, C ; Shao, B ; Kelestimur, H ; Henry, BA ; Conductier, G ; O'Byrne, KT ; Clarke, IJ (CSIRO PUBLISHING, 2019-05-01)
    RFamide-related peptide (RFRP)-3 reduces luteinising hormone (LH) secretion in rodents. Stress has been shown to upregulate the expression of the RFRP gene (Rfrp) with a concomitant reduction in LH secretion, but an effect on expression of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene (Gnrh1) has not been shown. We hypothesised that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress affects expression of Rfrp, the gene for kisspeptin (Kiss1) and/or Gnrh1, leading to suppression of LH levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular injections of RFRP-3 (0.1, 1, 5 nmol) or i.v. LPS (15 μg kg−1) reduced LH levels. Doses of 1 and 5 nmol RFRP-3 were then administered to analyse gene expression by in situ hybridisation. RFRP-3 (5 nmol) had no effect on Gnrh1 or Kiss1 expression. LPS stress reduced GnRH and Kiss1 expression, without affecting Rfrp1 expression. These data indicate that LPS stress directly or indirectly reduces Gnrh1 expression, but this is unlikely to be due to a change in Rfrp1 expression.