Asia Institute - Research Publications

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    Manuscript Use and Typesetting Issues
    Takagi, A ; Cope, B ; Gollings, G (Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd, 2001)
    The emerging technological tools of digital text creation and manufacture make possible quite the opposite - the revival of small cultures and languages. This book sets out to argue two things.
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    Intercultural communication by non-native and native speakers of Japanese in text-based synchronous CMC.
    Takagi, A (ascilite, 2008)
    This study explores speech behaviour when non-native speakers of Japanese (NNSJ) and native speakers of Japanese (NSJ) exchange cultural information, specifically using text- based synchronous computer-mediated communication. This experimental study uses a scaffolding technique in which a Japanese language teacher is less present and NNSJ are left to communicate with NSJ within a restricted timeframe. This study demands their intercultural engagement, thus suggesting an outcome of intercultural relationship building. While the study examined participants’ speech behaviours – specifically, the key speech act of requesting – observed to be important for realising smooth intercultural relationships, it also highlighted attributes of available technologies useful in facilitating intercultural engagement. Since people from different cultural backgrounds have different perceptions of politeness reflected in their behaviour and language use, understanding how request strategies are used by NSJ could give NNSJ intercultural insights and skills in Japanese language and socio-cultural behaviour. CMC has been utilised in computer-assisted language learning (CALL), with students able to learn languages through a real-world context and access native speakers of the target language, beyond the classroom. CMC has been found to be an effective adopted ‘third place’ (Kramsch 1993) located at the intersection of the cultures the learner grew up with, and the cultures to which they are introduced. In the case of language use, technology allows NNSJ to record their conversations, and reflect on the language being used, thus gaining intercultural insights and skills; these could be transferable to other communication modes, whether computer-driven technology or face-to-face. It is intended that the findings of this study might shed light on the innovative enhancement of non-native Japanese speakers’ intercultural and socio-cultural competence through the use of text-based CMC.
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    Language shift and maintenance in the Korean community in Australia
    Shin, S-C ; Jung, SJ (International Journal of Korean Language Education, 2016)
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    Using Courts to Realize Education Rights: Reflections from India and Indonesia
    Rosser, A ; Joshi, A (World Bank, 2018-05-22)
    This paper examines the role of courts in promoting fulfillment of the right to education in developing country democracies, focusing on India and Indonesia—two countries that have experienced increased education rights litigation in recent years. The paper argues that this litigation has been part of broader struggles over education policy, inequality, and the capture of educational institutions by political and bureaucratic forces; and that the extent to which litigation has been used and led to policy changes has depended significantly on the nature of, and access to, the court system; the presence of support structures for legal mobilization; the ideology of the courts and judges; and the roles and willingness of litigants to pursue redress. Broadly, litigation has served the interests of the poor and marginalized, although gains have largely come through better access to education, while issues of improving quality have been less prominent.
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    The political economy of teacher management reform in Indonesia
    Rosser, A ; Fahmi, M (Elsevier, 2018-07-01)
    Indonesia faces serious problems in the number, cost, quality and distribution of teachers. In recent years, its central government has introduced a range of reforms to address these problems but they have produced modest results. This paper suggests that this outcome reflects the way in which predatory political and bureaucratic elites have used the school system for decades to accumulate resources, distribute patronage, mobilize political support, and exercise political control rather than promote improved learning outcomes. Efforts to reduce teacher numbers, enhance teacher quality, and improve teacher distribution have accordingly constituted an assault on the interests of these elites, provoking powerful, if often subterranean, resistance. Broadly, reform has only occurred where the central government has employed policy instruments that have disciplined local governments and maintained a commitment to these instruments in the face of resistance. The paper concludes by assessing the implications for Indonesian education.
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    Public policy for a modernising China: The challenge of providing universal access to education under fiscal decentralisation
    Wong, C ; Dougherty, S ; Kim, J (OECD, 2019)
    One of the key inequalities in China today is the divide between urban residents with local registration (hukou) and those without. This chapter examines the historical and systemic causes of this divide between the hukou and non-hukou populations, focusing on the provision of basic education. The limited access to urban schooling for the children of rural migrants is a divisive issue in the debate on citizenship and social rights of migrants, and one with adverse implications for labour markets and intergenerational mobility. This chapter uses the provision of basic education to illustrate how fiscal decentralisation in China – under particular historical circumstances, produced a divisive, rather than inclusive growth outcome. Moreover, even though education policies have shifted over the past two decades to calling for inclusiveness, their impact has to date remained limited, leaving the government with an inequality it does not want and finding very difficult to reverse.
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    Using the Government Financial Reporting Framework to Redraw the State and Market Boundary in China: A Two-Step Approach
    Wong, C ; Zhao, M (The World Bank, 2018)
    After four decades of remarkable economic achievement under market reforms, the leadership has called for a reset in the boundary between the State and the Market as an important corrective to help China sustain rapid economic growth, by imposing hard budget constraints on government and insulating SOEs from local government predation. This could start with revealing and reviewing the current operation and finance of the government through the new Government financial reporting framework (GFRS). The sheer size of SOEs and their engagement in provision and finance of public goods and services poses great challenge for China to immediately adopt international standard for GFRS. Given their huge size and diverse characteristics, it is neither correct nor practical to include all SOEs in the public sector. We therefore proposed a two-step approach for using the GFRS to redraw the boundary of the state and market. The first step is to adopt an accounting framework that aims to provide a comprehensive count of government operation and finance, focuses on the fiscal impact of entities, and simplifies the reporting requirements for the vast majority of SOEs. The second step is to review the government operation and finance with an economic framework. It is also hoped that the exercise itself will stimulate further reform of SOEs and a rethinking of the division of responsibilities between government and market. While one should not expect to reach a clear and ideal division between the state and market overnight, with successive iterations, the exercise will lead incrementally to greater clarity and improvements, as the process of implementing the GFRS sets off a beneficent cycle for China’s economic transformation to a higher quality and sustainable growth.
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    Budget reform in China: Progress and prospects in the Xi Jinping era
    Wong, C ; Podger, A ; Su, T ; Wanna, J ; Chan, HS ; Niu, M (ANU Press, 2018)
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    Fiscal Futures: Will China Offer an Alternative Development Model?
    Wong, C (International Budget Partnership, 2019-03-13)
    Forty years since launching its program of “reform and opening,” China is still going strong as a one-party state. Under the Communist Party’s tutelage, China’s development has diverged from historical patterns whereby growing economic prosperity has led invariably to the rise of democratic institutions, as richer and better educated citizens demand more say in society and government. Rather than becoming more democratic, China has instead become more authoritarian and intolerant. The question we address in this post is whether China’s current path is a temporary detour, or if it represents the emergence of a new development “model” that the Chinese government is touting. We argue that the results-based, pragmatic approach to politics associated with “Chinese-style democracy” may look attractive to countries seeking to kickstart development, but the authoritarian aspect of the model, along with its economic foundations, may be unsustainable even in China where hard tax and spending choices will soon have to be made.