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    Learning Difficulties: The 2024 Presidential Election and the Fate of Indonesia’s Education System
    Rosser, A (Asialink, 2024-01-25)
    A crisis in education is impairing Indonesia’s aspirations for economic development. But all three candidates for this year’s presidential elections are offering more of the same.
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    Language shift and maintenance in the Korean community in Australia
    Shin, S-C ; Jung, SJ (International Journal of Korean Language Education, 2016)
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    Why is global hunger still on the rise and what can we do about it? Experts’ Opinions
    Russo, C (Development Aid, 2023-12-25)
    More than 3.4 billion people – 42% of the world’s population – are under the age of 25 and are confronted with unsustainable and highly vulnerable food systems. This is according to the latest Global Hunger Index (GHI), released in October 2023. Despite international efforts to achieve zero hunger by 2030, little progress has been made in reducing global hunger since 2015.
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    Some Interpretations
    Reuter, T (Joshua Nash, 2023)
    Debates on representational bias in the discipline of anthropology have focused on partialities arising from the subjectivity of individual researchers and from specific historical patterns of unequal relations between the societies in which ethnographers live and those they study. There are thus two layers to this debate, with bias operating both at an individual and a collective level. In the first case, biased representations of other ethnic groups and their cultures can arise from the personal subjectivity of individual researchers. In the second, ethnography is compromised as a collective enterprise by unequal historical and contemporary power relations between the societies concerned. An associated legitimisation crisis still lingers because a satisfying solution to the two sides of the subjectivity problem continues to elude us.
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    Imagination, Science and Education: How to liberate ourselves from the prison of rationality
    Reuter, T (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2023)
    Achieving Human Security For All (HS4A) is a process that depends on our ability to imagine a future state that is different to present conditions, under which HS4A remains elusive. Only a very few eminent thinkers have recognised, however, that imagination is its own unique and important noetic or cognitive function independent of rationality, giving us access to an ontological sphere that otherwise remains closed to us. Meanwhile, for rationalist science philosophy, which has dominated our education systems since the Enlightenment period, imagination has long been understood as nothing but a preoccupation with the unreal, the mythic, the marvellous, the fictive, and fanciful—entertaining perhaps, but of no serious consequence. In this paper, I argue that rationalist modernism, along with a mass education system designed in keeping with this modernist ‘spirit of the times’, has led to our collective imprisonment within the real, the concrete, and robbed us of the capacity to reflect and transform ourselves and our relationship to the world and each other. This state of affairs will ensure humanity’s rapid demise given the mounting security challenges we now face, that is, unless we can reinstate the faculty of imagination within scientific epistemology and in education, and thus escape our entrapment.
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    Why Social Justice is the Most Effective Means of Disaster Impact Mitigation: Lessons from the Pandemic
    Reuter, T (Department of Ethnology and Anthropology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, 2023)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that the impact of a systemic crisis depends very much on the prevailing level of inequality in the society concerned. This paper shows how the affordability of food was reduced dramatically for millions of people due to income loss in the wake of the pandemic, and the consequences this had. An analysis of the political economy of crisis then illustrates how economic inequality acts as a massive amplifier of disaster impacts on disadvantaged individuals and populations. Environmental degradation, across a broad spectrum from climate change to biodiversity loss, acts similarly as an impact amplifier in this and most other crises. Economically disadvantaged people are more immediately exposed to the impact of ecological degradation or may be forced to disregard the need for nature protection, which means the two factors are also mutually reinforcing. Inequality literally kills people, the more so in this century of worsening multidimensional crises. The paper argues that inequality on this scale is not just immoral but undermines human security, even for relatively privileged population groups, as well as threatening the stability of international relations. Addressing inequality, and especially inequitable policies in the food producing rural sector which acted as a major safety net for the poor during lockdowns, is thus the best pathway to mitigate future crises and their impact on food security.
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    Anthropological Perspectives on Covid-19
    Vučinić Nešković, V ; Reuter, T ; Patnaik, S (Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, Department of Ethnology and Anthropology, 2023)
    The Covid-19 pandemic has been a highly disruptive global crisis, touching nearly all aspects of human existence and changing many policy assumptions in transnational perspectives. Anthropologists witnessed these impacts first hand across many countries, while mainstream media reports focused primarily on the spread of the disease, public health measures and the impact on economic life in western countries. Other dimensions of the pandemic such as the emergence of new socialities and inequalities, social disarticulation, the changing role of fam-ily and kinship and the transformed domestic and professional spaces mediated through technology, especially in developing countries, were largely ignored.
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    Restoring the Place of Imagination in Education: How to escape the trap of rationality-based realism
    Reuter, T (Index Copernicus, 2022-06-30)
    Henri Corbin accorded the imagination its own unique and important noetic or cognitive function, giving us access to an ontological sphere that without imagination remains closed and forbidden to us. Meanwhile, for rationalist science philosophy, as Corbin notes, the imagination has long been understood as nothing but the unreal, the mythic, the marvellous, the fictive and fanciful. In this paper I argue that rationalist modernism, along with mass education in keeping with this modernist ‘spirit of the times’ has led to a collective imprisonment within the real, the concrete, and robbed us of the capacity to reflect and transform ourselves and our relationship to the world. This state of affairs will ensure humanity’s rapid demise given the challenges we now face, that is, unless we can reinstate the faculty of imagination within scientific epistemology and in education, and thus escape our entrapment.
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    The Reinvention of Moral Ecologies in Indonesia
    Reuter, T ; Duile, T ; Grossmann, K ; Haug, M ; Sprenger, G (Routledge, 2023)
    The desolate state of global ecosystems now calls for food systems that are sustainable and regenerative. Proponents of a still hegemonic modernist ecology demand ever more ruthless production maximization instead. The battle for hegemony between the two different ecologies is heating up. In practice, however, compromises are inevitable and bound to produce plural ecologies at the local level, and what happens locally is vital because local food systems largely determine whether the overall ecology of a nation will be sustainable or not. Using the island of Java in Indonesia as a case study, this paper explores an emerging movement for more ‘moral’ ecologies that nevertheless also retain elements of modernist scientific ecologies based on rational control of nature. A regenerative agriculture movement has grown in Java that advocates for food systems and wider ecologies to become more sustainable and equitable. While evoking traditional ecologies and associated values, this movement embraces environmental science and innovation. Overall, their post-modern “plural ecologies” strive for high productivity, secure livelihoods, food security for all, and balanced coexistence with nature.