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    Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo
    Brucato, N ; Kusuma, P ; Cox, MP ; Pierron, D ; Purnomo, GA ; Adelaar, A ; Kivisild, T ; Letellier, T ; Sudoyo, H ; Ricaut, F-X (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2016-09-01)
    Malagasy genetic diversity results from an exceptional protoglobalization process that took place over a thousand years ago across the Indian Ocean. Previous efforts to locate the Asian origin of Malagasy highlighted Borneo broadly as a potential source, but so far no firm source populations were identified. Here, we have generated genome-wide data from two Southeast Borneo populations, the Banjar and the Ngaju, together with published data from populations across the Indian Ocean region. We find strong support for an origin of the Asian ancestry of Malagasy among the Banjar. This group emerged from the long-standing presence of a Malay Empire trading post in Southeast Borneo, which favored admixture between the Malay and an autochthonous Borneo group, the Ma'anyan. Reconciling genetic, historical, and linguistic data, we show that the Banjar, in Malay-led voyages, were the most probable Asian source among the analyzed groups in the founding of the Malagasy gene pool.
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    Malagasy Personal Pronouns: A Lexical History
    Adelaar, A ; Ritsuko, K (UNIV HAWAII PRESS, 2014-12-01)
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    Reviving Siraya: A Case for Language Engineering
    Adelaar, A (UNIV HAWAII PRESS, 2013-01-01)
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    Malagasy dialect divisions: Genetic versus emblematic criteria
    Adelaar, K (University of Hawai'i Press, 2013-12-01)
    This paper gives an overview of the literature on Malagasy dialect variety and the various Malagasy dialect classifications that have been proposed. It rejects the often held view that the way Malagasy dialects reflect the Proto-Austronesian phoneme sequences *li and *ti is a basic criterion for their genetic division. While the linguistic innovations shown in, respectively, central dialects (Merina, Betsileo, Sihanaka, Tanala) and southwestern dialects (Vezo, Mahafaly, Tandroy) clearly show that these groups form separate historical divisions, the linguistic developments in other (northern, eastern, and western) dialects are more difficult to interpret. The differences between Malagasy dialects are generally rather contained and do not seem to be the result of separate migration waves or the arrival of linguistically different migrant groups. The paper ends with a list of subgrouping criteria that will be useful for future research into the history of Malagasy dialects. © by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.
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    Bibliography of the Languages of Borneo (and Madagascar)
    Adelaar, S (KITLV PRESS, 2015-01-01)
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    Javanese -ake and -akan: A Short History
    Adelaar, A (UNIV HAWAII PRESS, 2011-12-01)
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    Talen, culturen en genen in het Austronesische taalgebied
    ADELAAR, K (Academische Stichting Leuven, 2016)
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    Contrasting Linguistic and Genetic Origins of the Asian Source Populations of Malagasy
    Kusuma, P ; Brucato, N ; Cox, MP ; Pierron, D ; Razafindrazaka, H ; Adelaar, A ; Sudoyo, H ; Letellier, T ; Ricaut, F-X (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2016-05-18)
    The Austronesian expansion, one of the last major human migrations, influenced regions as distant as tropical Asia, Remote Oceania and Madagascar, off the east coast of Africa. The identity of the Asian groups that settled Madagascar is particularly mysterious. While language connects Madagascar to the Ma'anyan of southern Borneo, haploid genetic data are more ambiguous. Here, we screened genome-wide diversity in 211 individuals from the Ma'anyan and surrounding groups in southern Borneo. Surprisingly, the Ma'anyan are characterized by a distinct, high frequency genomic component that is not found in Malagasy. This novel genetic layer occurs at low levels across Island Southeast Asia and hints at a more complex model for the Austronesian expansion in this region. In contrast, Malagasy show genomic links to a range of Island Southeast Asian groups, particularly from southern Borneo, but do not have a clear genetic connection with the Ma'anyan despite the obvious linguistic association.
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    Malagasy Phonological History and Bantu Influence
    Adelaar, A (UNIV HAWAII PRESS, 2012-06-01)