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    Populism in Southeast Asia: A Vehicle for Reform or a Tool for Despots?
    Robison, R ; Hadiz, VR ; Carroll, T ; Hameiri, S ; Jones, L (Springer International Publishing, 2020)
    This chapter explains the rise of populist politics and why it takes different forms in Southeast Asia – specifically in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. We see populism as an integral part of larger conflicts over power and wealth that accompany the advance of global capitalism. The failure of governments and elites to deal with structural crises confronting their societies provides the circumstances in which populism can emerge. Populist movements are shaped by different forces and interests operating within cross-class alliances in particular contexts. This explains why populism can sometimes be a vehicle for long-supressed popular demands for the redistribution of wealth and social justice and, elsewhere, effectively protect the interests of established oligarchies by diverting such demands into a politics of identity and culture.
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    Ordinary Laws and Extraordinary Crimes: Criminalising Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity in the Draft Criminal Code?
    Setiawan, K ; Lindsey, T ; Pausacker, H (Routledge, 2020)
    Every Thursday since 2007, survivors of human rights violations, their family members and representatives of human rights organisations gather in front of the Presidential Palace in Jakarta. After the end of authoritarianism in 1998, Indonesia witnessed many political and legal reforms. The failures of the Indonesian human rights system are perhaps best demonstrated by the fact that twenty years after the fall of authoritarianism, justice is yet to be delivered for crimes committed under the repressive regime of President Soeharto. Until legislative reform in the area of human rights took place after 1998, Indonesian law included very few provisions for the protection of human rights in general. Legal provisions criminalising serious human rights crimes were absent altogether. The proposed inclusion of gross human rights violations in the Draft Criminal Code has been mainly driven by a desire to fully codify Indonesian criminal law, rather than to improve the prosecution of serious human rights crimes.
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    Indonesia's “Third-wave” Democratic Model?
    Mudhoffir, AM ; Hadiz, VR (Routledge, 2021-11-17)
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    Nanotechnology in Food: Ethics, Industry Practices and Regulatory Frameworks
    Reuter, T ; Van de Voorde, M ; Jeswani, G (Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2021)
    What are the ethical implications of nanomaterials in food systems, given the potential of such a material to cause harm to human health and the environment? Following an outline of relevant ethical principles, this chapter charts the current use of nanomaterials in food and what we do and do not know about the risks associated therewith. Regulatory frameworks are then examined for their ability to mitigate risks. Three recommendations are put forward. First, it is best to avoid all unnecessary food processing categorically; second, nano-processed food products should only enter the market when harmful impacts can be categorically ruled out on the basis of independent and in-depth research and where benefits are very significant; and finally, complete transparency on the use of nanomaterials and other additives is needed so that consumers can exercise individual discretion regarding their own exposure to nano-food products, even if they are safe, and the more so while any doubts remain about their safety. Overall, the trend of the largely profit-driven global food industry has been and is still toward hyper-processing - despite consistent warnings of health professions about hyper-processed food. Nanotech takes this trend to a new level. Current voluntary producer ethics do not even guarantee transparency, let alone safety, except in jurisdictions where legislation demands it. While some nanomaterials may be beneficial and safe for some applications, industry self-regulation is not viable under these circumstances. While regulations have been strengthened in some jurisdictions such as the European Union, regulators still struggle to catch up with the rapid development and application of ever-new nanotech products by the food industry. A restructure of our innovation systems is recommended so that all stakeholders are included in shaping its future direction from the start.
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    State of the Grain: Grain of the State: The Political - and Moral -Economy of Rice in Indonesia
    Macrae, G ; Reuter, T ; Dundon, A ; Vokes, R (Routledge, 2021)
    In so doing, the volume provides tools not only for understanding states’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, but also for judging what effects these responses are likely to have.
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    Diaspora to the rescue: The role of civil society groups in helping Indians stranded by the COVID-19 pandemic
    Taneja, P ; Dhanji, S ; Avenell, S ; Ogawa, A (Routledge, 2021-07-23)
    As the novel coronavirus began to spread worldwide in early 2020, millions of people were stranded in different parts of the world because of the travel restrictions imposed by various governments and the cancellation or suspension of flights by international airlines. They included hundreds of thousands of Indian tourists, students, workers on short-term visas, and families visiting relatives in far-flung parts of the world. While the Indian government organized special flights to ferry some of them home, many were left stranded without official assistance or the means to support themselves in foreign lands. But a loosely organized network of not-for-profit organizations, run by members of the Indian diaspora, took matters into their own hands and offered to assist those in need. They raised funds, provided shelter, and collected, cooked, and delivered food to the needy, in addition to helping them in myriad other ways. This chapter contextualizes and explores the role of three civil society organizations who coordinated their efforts at local, national, and global levels to meet the needs of the stranded Indians and other South Asians. It aims to capture their initiative and social capital that transcended borders to bridge the gap in delivering services to vulnerable people.
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    Introduction: Transnational Civil Society in Asia
    Ogawa, A ; Avenell, S ; Avenell, S ; Ogawa, A (Routledge, 2021)
    This chapter discusses the theoretical aspects of transnational civil society in Asia examined in the volume along with providing a succinct overview of the content chapters. The chapter first provides a definitional discussion of transnational civil society in Asia, followed by the presentation of the four key themes covered in the chapters: (1) local transformations and connections; (2) diaspora politics; (3) cross-regional initiatives and networks; and (4) global actors and influences. The chapter also poses the question of whether we are witnessing a kind of grassroots regionalization developing in the region.
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    Rapport to Fit In—Rapport to Stand Out
    Ewing, MC ; Goebel, Z (Oxford, 2021-01-21)
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    The Social Exclusion of Child-Rearing Unwed Mothers in South Korea
    Han, BY ; Yang, MO ; Gustafsson, R ; Liamputtong, P (Springer International Publishing, 2021-02-14)
    In South Korean society, child-rearing unwed mothers constitute a very specific minority. They enjoy no specific legal protections to exercise their right to keep and rear their children, nor are there any comprehensive policies in place to promote social acceptance and substantive inclusion of them and their children. This chapter provides an overview of the social exclusion of child-rearing unwed mothers in South Korea, attending to the ways in which legal and social frameworks intersect and have been at times mutually reinforcing. The authors outline and discuss concepts of unwed motherhood, widespread discrimination in multiple social contexts, legislation relevant to unwed mothers and their families, current social services and barriers to accessing these, as well as alternatives to child-rearing. The authors argue that social exclusion involves the multidimensional, processual, and dynamic ways in which individuals are marginalized, and which limit their meaningful participation and sense of belonging in the society in which they strive to craft livable lives. Key to this chapter’s analysis of the social exclusion of child-rearing unwed mothers and their families is the role of pervasive social stigma and shame, which continue to have a deleterious impact on the accessibility of social services (regardless of formal entitlement to those services), sense of belonging, visibility, and social participation.