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    South Borneo as an ancient Sprachbund area
    Adelaar, A (UNIV INDONESIA, FAC HUMANITIES, 2021-01-01)
    In South and Central Kalimantan (southern Borneo) there are some unusual linguistic features shared among languages which are adjacent but do not belong to the same genetic linguistic subgroups. These languages are predominantly Banjar Malay (a Malayic language), Ngaju (a West Barito language), and Ma’anyan (a Southeast Barito language). The same features also appear to some degree in Malagasy, a Southeast Barito language in East Africa. The shared linguistic features are the following ones: a grammaticalized form of the originally Malay noun buah ‘fruit’ expressing affectedness, nasal spreading in which N- not only nasalizes the onset of the first syllable but also a *y in the next syllable, a non-volitional marker derived from the Banjar Malay prefix combination ta-pa- (related to Indonesian tr- + pr-), and the change from Proto Malayo-Polynesian *s to h (or Malagasy Ø). These features have their origins in the various members of the language configuration outlined above and form a Sprachbund or “Linguistic Area”. The concept of Linguistic Area is weak and difficult to define. Lyle Campbell (2002) considers it little else than borrowing or diffusion and writes it off as “no more than [a] post hoc attempt [...] to impose geographical order on varied conglomerations of [...] borrowings”. While mindful of its shortcomings, the current author still uses the concept as a useful tool to distinguish between
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    A Historical-Contextualist Approach to the Joseph Chapter of the Qur’an
    Akbar, A (Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    Abstract This article applies a historical-contextualist approach to analyzing the Joseph sūra of the Qur’an. It first explores the theoretical framework of this study and introduces the historical-contextualist methodology employed and then provides a brief explanation of the Qur’anic account of the story of Joseph. The Joseph sūra is analyzed in light of the context of its revelation and the use it makes of fundamental Qur’anic teachings. This article demonstrates that the revelation of the sūra of Joseph was closely related to the sociopolitical context in which Muhammad and the Muslims lived, and that the sūra highlights several fundamental theological teachings of the Qur’an, including God’s unity and omnipotence, revelation and prophethood, and the afterlife, all themes emphasized in earliest sūras of the Qur’an including those revealed before the Joseph sūra.
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    Apples and oranges: Political crops with and against the state in rural China
    Rogers, S ; Han, X ; Wilmsen, B (University of Arizona, 2022-01-01)
    In this article we bring together conceptual threads from political ecology, commodity geographies and agrarian studies to enable an inquiry into the political nature of crops. This inquiry is underpinned by the idea that crops are not just a means or a target of political projects, but can have effects through their webs of relations, and that their different capacities might mean that they may differently engage in political projects. This article examines how specialized cash crops in rural China are enrolled in state projects. We explore the cases of orange orchards and apple orchards in different locations in Hebei by detailing flows of capital and expertise, and smallholder-crop relations. Our analysis demonstrates that a political ecology of cash crops can provide insight into the politics of successive state projects that have been rolled out in China's agricultural communities. We argue that through evolving relations with smallholders, the attributes of the crops themselves, and particular market dynamics, robust smallholder-crop complexes have emerged that are currently proving resistant to the latest state project to achieve at-scale, industrialized agriculture. If we take political crops and their relations seriously in the story of contemporary agrarian change in China, we find that apple and oranges, previously with the state, can also come to act against it.
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    Tongzhi Sovereignty: Taiwan's lgbt Rights Movement and the Misplaced Critique of Homonationalism
    Chen-Dedman, A (Brill, 2022-01-01)
    Abstract This essay reviews the influential work of a group of Leftist ‘sex liberation’ scholars who pioneered queer sexuality studies in Taiwan in the 1990s. In doing so, it focuses on their post-2000 political rift with the mainstream Taiwanese lgbt (tongzhi) rights movement. What ostensibly began as a split over views of same-sex marriage has developed into a contentious politics of Chinese versus Taiwanese national identity and what I call ‘tongzhi sovereignty’. In bringing together both national identity and sexual politics in Taiwan as increasingly intertwined sites of contestation, I argue that the two must be theorised in tandem. As a fertile site for unpacking this contentious divergence, I examine and problematise the way that cultural theorist Jasbir Puar’s popular concept of homonationalism has circulated in scholarship of cultural/sexuality studies about Taiwan as a slanted and largely unchecked analytic to criticise lgbt sociolegal progress and, for some scholars, obscures a pro-unification agenda.
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    Aktualne ulohy akademii a Akademie
    Reuter, T ; Momir, D ; Engelbrecht, J (Intercedu, 2022)
    The present article is written as an issue paper on academies for the GL-211 Project. It traces activities of academies and their associations in the present information-rich society. The state-of-the-art of the academic world is briefly described. This permits to focus on general trends in knowledge management in general and the role of academies. The successful strategies and interdependencies form the framework of activities, where one should also understand the possible obstacles. The impact of these activities together with ideas for more social responsibility and cooperation are examined. The unique position of World Academy of Arts and Sciences in organising a network for social progress is underlined.
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    Civil Society and Youth Leadership for Transformation
    Reuter, T ; Marien, M ; Harries, D (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020)
    This discussion paper looks at the current historical momentum and potential future development of civil society and youth leadership for a systemic transformation to a sustainable new civilization. It identifies emerging challenges, obstacles, and some of the innovative new leadership strategies that have been developed to overcome them. Civil society is central in the process of transformation in a dual sense: As the target of transformation — it is civil society at large together with governments and the private sector that must shift to sustainable practices in our daily lives, — and as an instigator of change—individuals, informal networks or organized groups of citizens specifically dedicated to promoting this transformation. This boundary between recipients and agents in society is fluid, as more and more people take action or join organized efforts to elicit a purposeful transformation.
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    Current Tasks of Academies and Academia
    Reuter, T ; Engelbrecht, J ; Djurovic, M (Risk Institute Trieste, 2020)
    The present article is written as an issue paper on academies for the GL-21 Project. It traces activities of academies and their associations in the present information-rich society. The state-of-the-art of the academic world is briefly described. This permits to focus on general trends in knowledge management in general and the role of academies. The successful strategies and interdependencies form the framework of activities, where one should also understand the possible obstacles. The impact of these activities together with ideas for more social responsibility and cooperation are examined. The unique position of WAAS in organizing a network for social progress is underlined.
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    Imagining a future civilization: a new utopianism founded in the here and now
    Reuter, T (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-07-07)
    Are we able to imagine and create a new civilization, a better world, in a collective act of imagination and will? Active imagination is in essence a process of reflection on possible futures that already lie dormant within the present, and a decision to pursue the most desirable option. Active imagination thus may be expected to increase the probability that a positive, chosen future will actually become manifest reality. Evidently, however, the extent of our ‘futuring’ ability is limited. We therefore need to ask, what causes these constraints and how can they be overcome? Drawing on some recent literature in the tradition of Perennial Philosophy, this paper argues that more conscious ‘futuring’ is indeed possible under certain conditions. It examines the obstacles to be overcome and the preconditions that would need to be met in order to enable us consciously to imagine and create a just and sustainable future civilization.
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    Endangered Food Systems: Agriculture, Nutrition and Cultural Heritage in Bali, Indonesia
    Reuter, TA (Universitas Islam Indonesia (Islamic University of Indonesia), 2022)
    The long-established, traditional food systems maintained by indigenous and local communities in developing countries have witnessed rapid changes in production, trade, and consumption patterns in recent decades. These changes tend to be detrimental to ecological and human health. The central highlands and northeastern coast of the island of Bali, Indonesia, are illustrative examples of such a regional food system, with centuries of documented history and subject to a longitudinal ethnographic study by the author. This paper describes the recent decline in local biodiversity, ecological sustainability, social resilience, nutrition, and food security in this food system in the wake of agricultural ‘modernization.’ Greater attention to the culturally modulated dimensions of food systems, it is argued, will contribute to creating a rural development model for (re-)creating moral economies that support ecologically and socially responsible food systems.
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    Australia and Southeast Asia: Australia needs a new plan
    Robison, R (Asia Institute, University of Melbourne, 2022)
    Australia’s recently announced Defence Strategic Review promises more of the same in the nation’s defence and strategic thinking. This is concerning when we consider the urgent need for a substantial reconsideration of Australia’s relations with Southeast Asia.