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    The evolving geography of production hubs and regional value chains across East Asia: Trade in value-added
    Suder, G ; Liesch, PW ; Inomata, S ; Mihailova, I ; Meng, B (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2015-07-01)
    The interdependence of regional trade and production networks has important implications for national prosperity, regional stability and the internationalization of production. We ask: What are the locational patterns of trade in value-added in East Asia and how are these patterns changing over time? The disintermediation of value chains and the externalization of business activity create hubs of capability and extend value chains between countries. We adopt input-output techniques to analyze the evolution of production networks in East Asia over the period 1990-2005 from a value chain perspective. A high density of cross-border interaction is reported alongside changing geographic dynamics, and an informal integration derived from intermediates trade in value-addition. The locational interdependence of developed and less-developed countries across the region leverages on the heterogeneity of location-specific advantages within the region.
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    Regional trade agreements: Non-market strategy in the context of business regionalization
    Suder, G ; Lawton, T ; Rajwani, T (Routledge, 2015-04-24)
    A complex network of regional trade agreements (RTAs) spans our globalized world. For the most part, the scholarly literature refers to these as free trade agreements (FTAs), although they may potentially constitute a variety of market grouping and market integration constructs. Many of these RTAs emanate from the design of FTAs or customs unions, common markets, economic unions, currency unions, or other political or geo-economic constructs ruled under preferential trade agreements. The FTA is typically limited to the elimination of certain tariffs; the customs union also establishes a common customs duty; and each one of the above-cited constructs has its own politically negotiated variations. These variations, in essence, establish different types of level playing fi eld for fi rms with distinctive variants of harmonization effects that infl uence internal and external trade and investment conditions.
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    Building staff capability in digital learning: The three pillars of effective program design
    MACDONALD, H (Australasian Society for Computers in Learning and Tertiary Education, 2015)