Veterinary Biosciences - Research Publications

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    Novel 1-Methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide Derivatives with Potent Anthelmintic Activity
    Le, TG ; Kundu, A ; Ghoshal, A ; Nguyen, NH ; Preston, S ; Jiao, Y ; Ruan, B ; Xue, L ; Huang, F ; Keiser, J ; Hofmann, A ; Chang, BCH ; Garcia-Bustos, J ; Wells, TNC ; Palmer, MJ ; Jabbar, A ; Gasser, RB ; Baell, JB (American Chemical Society, 2019-03-15)
    A phenotypic screen of two different libraries of small molecules against the motility and development of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus led to the identification of two 1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide derivatives. Medicinal chemistry optimization targeted modifications of the left-hand side, middle section, and right-hand side of the hybrid structure of these two hits to elucidate the structure–activity relationship (SAR). Initial SAR around these hits allowed for the iterative and directed assembly of a focused set of 30 analogues of their hybrid structure. Compounds 10, 17, 20, and 22 were identified as the most potent compounds, inhibiting the development of the fourth larval (L4) stage of H. contortus at sub-nanomolar potencies while displaying strong selectivity toward the parasite when tested in vitro against the human MCF10A cell line. In addition, compounds 9 and 27 showed promising activity against a panel of other parasitic nematodes, including hookworms and whipworms.
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    Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Tolfenpyrad Reveal Subnanomolar Inhibitors of Haemonchus contortus Development
    Le, TG ; Kundu, A ; Ghoshal, A ; Nguyen, NH ; Preston, S ; Jiao, Y ; Ruan, B ; Xue, L ; Huang, F ; Keiser, J ; Hofmann, A ; Chang, BCH ; Garcia-Bustos, J ; Wells, TNC ; Palmer, MJ ; Jabbar, A ; Gasser, RB ; Baell, JB (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019-01-24)
    Recently, we have discovered that the registered pesticide, tolfenpyrad, unexpectedly and potently inhibits the development of the L4 larval stage of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus with an IC50 value of 0.03 μM while displaying good selectivity, with an IC50 of 37.9 μM for cytotoxicity. As a promising molecular template for medicinal chemistry optimization, we undertook anthelmintic structure-activity relationships for this chemical. Modifications of the left-hand side (LHS), right-hand side (RHS), and middle section of the scaffold were explored to produce a set of 57 analogues. Analogues 25, 29, and 33 were shown to be the most potent compounds of the series, with IC50 values at a subnanomolar level of potency against the chemotherapeutically relevant fourth larval (L4) stage of H. contortus. Selected compounds from the series also showed promising activity against a panel of other different parasitic nematodes, such as hookworms and whipworms.
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    Optimization of Novel 1-Methyl-1H-Pyrazole-5-carboxamides Leads to High Potency Larval Development Inhibitors of the Barber's Pole Worm
    Le, TG ; Kundu, A ; Ghoshal, A ; Nguyen, NH ; Preston, S ; Jiao, Y ; Ruan, B ; Xue, L ; Huang, F ; Keiser, J ; Hofmann, A ; Chang, BCH ; Garcia-Bustos, J ; Jabbar, A ; Wells, TNC ; Palmer, MJ ; Gasser, RB ; Baell, JB (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2018-12-13)
    A phenotypic screen of a diverse library of small molecules for inhibition of the development of larvae of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus led to the identification of a 1-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide derivative with an IC50 of 0.29 μM. Medicinal chemistry optimization targeted modifications on the left-hand side (LHS), middle section, and right-hand side (RHS) of the scaffold in order to elucidate the structure-activity relationship (SAR). Strong SAR allowed for the iterative and directed assembly of a focus set of 64 analogues, from which compound 60 was identified as the most potent compound, inhibiting the development of the fourth larval (L4) stage with an IC50 of 0.01 μM. In contrast, only 18% inhibition of the mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A viability was observed, even at concentrations as high as 50 μM.
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    The benefits of analysing complete mitochondrial genomes: Deep insights into the phylogeny and population structure of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes G6 and G7
    Laurimae, T ; Kinkar, L ; Romig, T ; Omer, RA ; Casulli, A ; Umhang, G ; Gasser, RB ; Jabbar, A ; Sharbatkhori, M ; Mirhendi, H ; Ponce-Gordo, F ; Lazzarini, LE ; Soriano, SV ; Varcasia, A ; Nejad, MR ; Andresiuk, V ; Maravilla, P ; Miguel Gonzalez, L ; Dybicz, M ; Gawor, J ; Sarkunas, M ; Snabel, V ; Kuzmina, T ; Saarma, U (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-10-01)
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the species complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Within this complex, genotypes G6 and G7 have been frequently associated with human CE worldwide. Previous studies exploring the genetic variability and phylogeography of genotypes G6 and G7 have been based on relatively short mtDNA sequences, and the resolution of these studies has often been low. Moreover, using short sequences, the distinction between G6 and G7 has in some cases remained challenging. The aim here was to sequence complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) to obtain deeper insight into the genetic diversity, phylogeny and population structure of genotypes G6 and G7. We sequenced complete mitogenomes of 94 samples collected from 15 different countries worldwide. The results demonstrated that (i) genotypes G6 and G7 can be clearly distinguished when mitogenome sequences are used; (ii) G7 is represented by two major haplogroups, G7a and G7b, the latter being specific to islands of Corsica and Sardinia; (iii) intensive animal trade, but also geographical isolation, have likely had the largest impact on shaping the genetic structure and distribution of genotypes G6 and G7. In addition, we found phylogenetically highly divergent haplotype from Mongolia (Gmon), which had a higher affinity to G6.
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    Distinguishing Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotypes G1 and G3 with confidence: A practical guide
    Kinkar, L ; Laurimae, T ; Acosta-Jamett, G ; Andresiuk, V ; Balkaya, I ; Casulli, A ; Gasser, RB ; Miguel Gonzalez, L ; Haag, KL ; Zait, H ; Irshadullah, M ; Jabbar, A ; Jenkins, DJ ; Manfredi, MT ; Mirhendi, H ; M'rad, S ; Rostami-Nejad, M ; Oudni-M'rad, M ; Beatriz Pierangeli, N ; Ponce-Gordo, F ; Rehbein, S ; Sharbatkhori, M ; Kia, EB ; Simsek, S ; Viviana Soriano, S ; Sprong, H ; Snabel, V ; Umhang, G ; Varcasia, A ; Saarma, U (ELSEVIER, 2018-10-01)
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease caused by tapeworms of the species complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, represents a substantial global health and economic burden. Within this complex, E. granulosus sensu stricto (genotypes G1 and G3) is the most frequent causative agent of human CE. Currently, there is no fully reliable method for assigning samples to genotypes G1 and G3, as the commonly used mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes are not sufficiently consistent for the identification and differentiation of these genotypes. Thus, a new genetic assay is required for the accurate assignment of G1 and G3. Here we use a large dataset of near-complete mtDNA sequences (n = 303) to reveal the extent of genetic variation of G1 and G3 on a broad geographical scale and to identify reliable informative positions for G1 and G3. Based on extensive sampling and sequencing data, we developed a new method, that is simple and cost-effective, to designate samples to genotypes G1 and G3. We found that the nad5 is the best gene in mtDNA to differentiate between G1 and G3, and developed new primers for the analysis. Our results also highlight problems related to the commonly used cox1 and nad1. To guarantee consistent identification of G1 and G3, we suggest using the sequencing of the nad5 gene region (680 bp). This region contains six informative positions within a relatively short fragment of the mtDNA, allowing the differentiation of G1 and G3 with confidence. Our method offers clear advantages over the previous ones, providing a significantly more consistent means to distinguish G1 and G3 than the commonly used cox1 and nad1.
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    Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1
    Kinkar, L ; Laurimae, T ; Acosta-Jamett, G ; Andresiuk, V ; Balkaya, I ; Casulli, A ; Gasser, RB ; van der Giessen, J ; Miguel Gonzalez, L ; Haag, KL ; Zait, H ; Irshadullah, M ; Jabbar, A ; Jenkins, DJ ; Kia, EB ; Manfredi, MT ; Mirhendi, H ; M'rad, S ; Rostami-Nejad, M ; Oudni-M'rad, M ; Beatriz Pierangeli, N ; Ponce-Gordo, F ; Rehbein, S ; Sharbatkhori, M ; Simsek, S ; Viviana Soriano, S ; Sprong, H ; Snabel, V ; Umhang, G ; Varcasia, A ; Saarma, U (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018-08-01)
    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the distinction of genotypes G1 and G3 using a large global dataset; and (ii) analyse the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G1 on a global scale using near-complete mitogenome sequences. For this study, 222 globally distributed E. granulosus s.s. samples were used, of which 212 belonged to genotype G1 and 10 to G3. Using a total sequence length of 11,682 bp, we inferred phylogenetic networks for three datasets: E. granulosus s.s. (n = 222), G1 (n = 212) and human G1 samples (n = 41). In addition, the Bayesian phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed. The latter yielded several strongly supported diffusion routes of genotype G1 originating from Turkey, Tunisia and Argentina. We conclude that: (i) using a considerably larger dataset than employed previously, E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are indeed distinct mitochondrial genotypes; (ii) the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. G1 is high globally, with lower values in South America; and (iii) the complex phylogeographic patterns emerging from the phylogenetic and geographic analyses suggest that the current distribution of genotype G1 has been shaped by intensive animal trade.
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    Special issue - Learning and teaching of veterinary parasitology
    Jabbar, A ; Gasser, RB (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-04-15)
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    Multiplexed Tandem PCR (MT-PCR) Assay Using the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein Gene for the Diagnosis of Theileria orientalis Infection in Cattle
    Gebrekidan, H ; Gasser, RB ; Stevenson, MA ; Jabbar, A ; Fenwick, B (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2018-03-01)
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    Speciation in the genus Cloacina (Nematoda: Strongylida): species flocks and intra-host speciation
    Chilton, NB ; Shuttleworth, MA ; Huby-Chilton, F ; Koehler, AV ; Jabbar, A ; Gasser, RB ; Beveridge, I (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2017-11-01)
    Sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 + ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were employed to determine whether the congeneric assemblages of species of the strongyloid nematode genus Cloacina, found in the forestomachs of individual species of kangaroos and wallabies (Marsupialia: Macropodidae), considered to represent species flocks, were monophyletic. Nematode assemblages examined in the black-striped wallaby, Macropus (Notamacropus) dorsalis, the wallaroos, Macropus (Osphranter) antilopinus/robustus, rock wallabies, Petrogale spp., the quokka, Setonix brachyurus, and the swamp wallaby, Wallabia bicolor, were not monophyletic and appeared to have arisen by host colonization. However, a number of instances of within-host speciation were detected, suggesting that a variety of methods of speciation have contributed to the evolution of the complex assemblages of species present in this genus.
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    Deguelin exerts potent nematocidal activity via the mitochondrial respiratory chain
    Preston, S ; Korhonen, PK ; Mouchiroud, L ; Cornaglia, M ; McGee, SL ; Young, ND ; Davis, RA ; Crawford, S ; Nowell, C ; Ansell, BRE ; Fisher, GM ; Andrews, KT ; Chang, BCH ; Gijs, MAM ; Sternberg, PW ; Auwerx, J ; Baell, J ; Hofmann, A ; Jabbar, A ; Gasser, RB (WILEY, 2017-10-01)
    As a result of limited classes of anthelmintics and an over-reliance on chemical control, there is a great need to discover new compounds to combat drug resistance in parasitic nematodes. Here, we show that deguelin, a plant-derived rotenoid, selectively and potently inhibits the motility and development of nematodes, which supports its potential as a lead candidate for drug development. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deguelin treatment significantly increases gene transcription that is associated with energy metabolism, particularly oxidative phosphorylation and mitoribosomal protein production before inhibiting motility. Mitochondrial tracking confirmed enhanced oxidative phosphorylation. In accordance, real-time measurements of oxidative phosphorylation in response to deguelin treatment demonstrated an immediate decrease in oxygen consumption in both parasitic (Haemonchus contortus) and free-living (Caenorhabditis elegans) nematodes. Consequently, we hypothesize that deguelin is exerting its toxic effect on nematodes as a modulator of oxidative phosphorylation. This study highlights the dynamic biologic response of multicellular organisms to deguelin perturbation.-Preston, S., Korhonen, P. K., Mouchiroud, L., Cornaglia, M., McGee, S. L., Young, N. D., Davis, R. A., Crawford, S., Nowell, C., Ansell, B. R. E., Fisher, G. M., Andrews, K. T., Chang, B. C. H., Gijs, M. A. M., Sternberg, P. W., Auwerx, J., Baell, J., Hofmann, A., Jabbar, A., Gasser, R. B. Deguelin exerts potent nematocidal activity via the mitochondrial respiratory chain.