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ItemImpact of climate change on tick-borne diseases of livestock in Pakistan – looking aheadGhafar, A ; Gasser, R ; Jabbar, A ; Nuttal, P (CABI, 2022)This expert opinion summarizes the current status of ticks and tick-borne diseases of ruminants in Pakistan. It also assesses the evidence of climate change and its likely impact on the abundance and distribution of ticks and the prevalence and intensity of tick-borne diseases affecting livestock in the country.
ItemNo Preview AvailableElucidating the molecular and developmental biology of parasitic nematodes: Moving to a multiomics paradigmMa, G ; Wang, T ; Korhonen, PK ; Hofmann, A ; Sternberg, PW ; Young, ND ; Gasser, RB ; Rollinson, D ; Stothard, R (ACADEMIC PRESS LTD-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-01-01)In the past two decades, significant progress has been made in the sequencing, assembly, annotation and analyses of genomes and transcriptomes of parasitic worms of socioeconomic importance. This progress has somewhat improved our knowledge and understanding of these pathogens at the molecular level. However, compared with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the areas of functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics of parasitic nematodes are still in their infancy, and there are major gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the molecular biology of parasitic nematodes. The information on signalling molecules, molecular pathways and microRNAs (miRNAs) that are known to be involved in developmental processes in C. elegans and the availability of some molecular resources (draft genomes, transcriptomes and some proteomes) for selected parasitic nematodes provide a basis to start exploring the developmental biology of parasitic nematodes. Indeed, some studies have identified molecules and pathways that might associate with developmental processes in related, parasitic nematodes, such as Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm). However, detailed information is often scant and ‘omics resources are limited, preventing a proper integration of ‘omic data sets and comprehensive analyses. Moreover, little is known about the functional roles of pheromones, hormones, signalling pathways and post-transcriptional/post-translational regulations in the development of key parasitic nematodes throughout their entire life cycles. Although C. elegans is an excellent model to assist molecular studies of parasitic nematodes, its use is limited when it comes to explorations of processes that are specific to parasitism within host animals. A deep understanding of parasitic nematodes, such as H. contortus, requires substantially enhanced resources and the use of integrative ‘omics approaches for analyses. The improved genome and well-established in vitro larval culture system for H. contortus provide unprecedented opportunities for comprehensive studies of the transcriptomes (mRNA and miRNA), proteomes (somatic, excretory/secretory and phosphorylated proteins) and lipidomes (e.g., polar and neutral lipids) of this nematode. Such resources should enable in-depth explorations of its developmental biology at a level, not previously possible. The main aims of this review are (i) to provide a background on the development of nematodes, with a particular emphasis on the molecular aspects involved in the dauer formation and exit in C. elegans; (ii) to critically appraise the current state of knowledge of the developmental biology of parasitic nematodes and identify key knowledge gaps; (iii) to cover salient aspects of H. contortus, with a focus on the recent advances in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and lipidomics as well as in vitro culturing systems; (iv) to review recent advances in our knowledge and understanding of the molecular and developmental biology of H. contortus using an integrative multiomics approach, and discuss the implications of this approach for detailed explorations of signalling molecules, molecular processes and pathways likely associated with nematode development, adaptation and parasitism, and for the identification of novel intervention targets against these pathogens. Clearly, the multiomics approach established recently is readily applicable to exploring a wide range of interesting and socioeconomically significant parasitic worms (including also trematodes and cestodes) at the molecular level, and to elucidate host–parasite interactions and disease processes.
ItemA perspective on the discovery of selected compounds with anthelmintic activity against the barber's pole worm-Where to from here?Jiao, Y ; Preston, S ; Hofmann, A ; Taki, A ; Baell, J ; Chang, BCH ; Jabbar, A ; Gasser, RB ; Rollinson, D ; Stothard, R (ACADEMIC PRESS LTD-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-01-01)Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals worldwide. Anthelmintic treatment is central to controlling these worms, but widespread resistance to most of the commercially available anthelmintics for veterinary and agricultural use is compromising control, such that there is an urgency to discover new and effective drugs. The purpose of this article is to review information on parasitic nematodes, the treatment and control of parasitic nematode infections and aspects of discovering new anthelmintics in the context of anthelmintic resistance problems, and then to discuss some progress that our group has made in identifying selected compounds with activity against nematodes. The focus of our recent work has been on discovering new chemical entities and known drugs with anthelmintic activities against Haemonchus contortus as well as other socioeconomically important parasitic nematodes for subsequent development. Using whole worm-based phenotypic assays, we have been screening compound collections obtained via product-development-partnerships and/or collaborators, and active compounds have been assessed for their potential as anthelmintic candidates. Following the screening of 15,333 chemicals from five distinct compound collections against H. contortus, we have discovered one new chemical entity (designated SN00797439), two human kinase inhibitors (SNS-032 and AG-1295), 14 tetrahydroquinoxaline analogues, one insecticide (tolfenpyrad) and two tolfenpyrad (pyrazole-5-carboxamide) derivatives (a-15 and a-17) with anthelmintic activity in vitro. Some of these 20 ‘hit’ compounds have selectivity against H. contortus in vitro when compared to particular human cell lines. In our opinion, some of these compounds could represent starting points for ‘lead’ development. Accordingly, the next research steps to be pursued include: (i) chemical optimisation of representative chemicals via structure-activity relationship (SAR) evaluations; (ii) assessment of the breadth of spectrum of anthelmintic activity on a range of other parasitic nematodes, such as strongyloids, ascaridoids, enoplids and filarioids; (iii) detailed investigations of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) of optimised chemicals with broad nematocidal or nematostatic activity; and (iv) establishment of the modes of action of lead candidates.