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    Balancing-sequencing paced assembly lines: a multi-objective mixed-integer linear case study
    Lopes, TC ; Michels, AS ; Brauner, N ; Magatao, L (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2023-09-02)
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    An exact method to incorporate ergonomic risks in Assembly Line Balancing Problems
    Possan Junior, MC ; Michels, AS ; Magatao, L (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2023-09)
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    Morphodynamics of an erodible channel under varying discharge
    Adams, DL (WILEY, 2021-07-29)
    Abstract Alluvial channels arise through the interaction between morphology, hydraulics, and sediment transport, known as the ‘fluvial trinity’. Over relatively short timescales where climate and geology are fixed but discharge and sediment supply may vary, this process facilitates adjustments towards steady state, where the system oscillates around a mean condition. The relationship between changes in conditions and geomorphic response may be highly complex and nonlinear, especially in systems with multiple modes of adjustment. This study examines the adjustment of an erodible channel with fixed banks and a widely graded sediment mixture to successive increases in discharge. With each increase in discharge, components of the fluvial trinity adjusted towards a steady state. Particularly at relatively low discharges, adjustments were controlled by intrinsic thresholds and highlighted important morphodynamic processes. Notably, there was a strong interplay between channel morphology and sediment transport, and an effect whereby larger‐than‐average grains controlled channel deformation. These two processes occurred at the bar scale and were highly spatialised, which has two important implications: (1) reach‐averaged representations of process provide only partial insight into morphodynamics; and (2) models of rivers that suppress these process feedbacks and size‐dependent transport may not replicate morphodynamics that typically occur in field conditions. The experiments provide quantitative evidence for conceptual models describing exponential approaches towards steady state and the potential for transiency if disturbance frequency exceeds the recovery time. They also highlight how in natural rivers, particularly those with greater degrees of freedom for adjustment (notably, lateral adjustment and meandering), continuous changes in discharge may lead to nonlinear rather than steady‐state behaviour. In these settings, more holistic analytical frameworks that embrace different aspects of the system are critical in understanding the direction, magnitude and timing of channel adjustments.
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    Movement and ranging behaviour of long-nosed potoroos (Potorous tridactylus) in south-west Victoria, Australia
    Le Pla, M ; Hradsky, BA ; Di Stefano, J ; Farley-Lehmer, TC ; Birnbaum, EK ; Pascoe, JH (CSIRO Publishing, 2023)
    Context. A comprehensive understanding of movements and space use can underpin the effective management of threatened species. GPS dataloggers can collect large amounts of high-quality movement data, and recent advances in statistical approaches allow for robust estimates of home range size to be generated. Until recently, technological and practical constraints have generally restricted the collection of movement data via GPS dataloggers to larger species. However, reductions in the size and weight of GPS dataloggers now allow for this technology to be applied to smaller species. Aims. The aim of this study was to describe the home range and movement patterns of a nationally vulnerable, native Australian ground-dwelling mammal, the long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus), in south-west Victoria, mainland Australia. Methods. We attached GPS dataloggers to 40 long-nosed potoroos between 2020 and 2022 and estimated home range size using dynamic Brownian Bridge movement models. We evaluated the influence of physiological factors such as body mass and sex on home range size and described patterns of home range overlap between and within sexes. Key results. Mean home range sizes were estimated to be 13.73 ha (95% CI: 10.9–16.6) and 6.67 ha (95% CI: 5.49–7.85) for males and females respectively. Home range size scaled with body mass in males but not females, and ranges were largely overlapping – although there was some evidence of intrasexual spatial partitioning of core range areas in females. Conclusions. Ours is the first application of GPS dataloggers to this species, and our home range estimates are over twice as large as other reported estimates for mainland Australia. Long-nosed potoroos may range across larger areas than previously predicted on mainland Australia. Implications. This knowledge may be used to optimise the management of long-nosed potoroo populations before and after fire – a key threatening process for this species. Our study highlights the value of integrating GPS dataloggers and robust home range estimators when describing the movement ecology of a population.
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    Surficial sediment data along the shoreface and inner continental shelf of western Victoria, Australia
    Carvalho, RC ; Kennedy, D ; Ierodiaconou, D (ELSEVIER, 2022-12)
    A comprehensive dataset of 138 surficial sediment samples retrieved from the shallow marine waters of six secondary compartments off the western coast of Victoria, Australia, is presented. Samples were collected between October 2018 and November 2020 at water depths ranging from four to 55 m using Shipek and Van Veen grabs. Sampling design targeted unconsolidated areas of the seafloor based on bathymetric and seafloor habitat data. Retrieved sediments were subsampled and subject to grain size analysis using a combination of dry sieving and laser diffraction methods, carbonate and organic matter content determination via Loss-on-Ignition, colour description using a Munsell chart, and roundness analysis using microscopic photography. This dataset, the most comprehensive surficial shallow water sedimentary record of the Otway Shelf, serves as a benchmark to understand sediment dynamics and conectivity along the coast, and can be used in environmental and engineering studies to support a range of management decisions.
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    Soil Bacterial Community May Offer Solutions for Ginger Cultivation
    Wang, C-W ; Wong, J-WM ; Yeh, S-S ; Hsieh, YE ; Tseng, C-H ; Yang, S-H ; Tang, S-L ; Burbank, LP (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2022-09-13)
    The Taitung region is one of Taiwan's main sites for ginger agriculture. Due to issues with disease and nutrients, farmers cannot use continuous cropping techniques on ginger, meaning that the ginger industry is constantly searching for new land. Continuous cropping increases the risk of infection by Pythium myriotylum and Ralstonia solanacearum, which cause soft rot disease and bacterial wilt, respectively. In addition, fertilizer additives, which are commonly used to increase trace elements in the soil, cannot restore the soil when it is undergoing continuous cropping on ginger, even when there has been no observable decrease in trace elements in the soil. Recent studies about soil microbiome manipulation and the application of microorganisms have shown that plant-associated microbes have the ability to improve plant growth and facilitate sustainable agriculture, but studies of this kind still need to be carried out on ginger cultivation. Therefore, in this study, we used the bacterial 16S V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA region to investigate microbe compositions in ginger soil to identify the difference between ginger soil with and without disease. Later, to investigate the influence of the well-known biocontrol agent B. velezensis and the fungicide Etridiazole on soil microbes and ginger productivity, we designed an experiment that collected the soil samples according to the different periods of ginger cultivation to examine the microbial community dynamics in the rhizome and bulk soil. We demonstrated that B. velezensis is beneficial to ginger reproduction. In accordance with our results, we suggest that B. velezensis may influence the plant's growth by adjusting its soil microbial composition. Etridiazole, on the other hand, may have some side effects on the ginger or beneficial bacteria in the soils that inhibit ginger reproduction. IMPORTANCE Pythium myriotylum and Ralstonia solanacearum cause soft rot disease and bacterial wilt, respectively. In this study, we used the bacterial 16S V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA region to investigate microbe compositions in healthy and diseased ginger soil and find out the influence of the well-known biocontrol agent B. velezensis and the fungicide Etridiazole on soil microbes and ginger productivity. These results demonstrated that B. velezensis benefits ginger reproduction and may influence the soil bacterial composition, while Etridiazole may have some side effects on the ginger or beneficial bacteria in the soils. The interactions among ginger, biocontrol agents, and fungicides need to be further investigated.
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    Assessing clinical trial failure risk factors and reasons in gastric cancer
    Zhang, Z ; Yin, J ; Yue, Y ; Su, Y ; Jiang, H (BMC, 2022-11-30)
    BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the leading cancer-related death causes. Enormous efforts have been focused on this field in these years. However, clinical trial failure is becoming a massive obstacle for researchers to apply their research results for clinical use. This study aimed to analyze the reasons behind clinical failures and identify potential risk factors of clinical trial failures. METHODS: On December, 1, 2021, we queried ClinicalTrials.gov for gastric cancer listed in phase II/III. We included trials specifying their interests in "stomach cancer", "Stomach Neoplasms", "Gastric Cancer", "Gastric Neoplasms", "Gastric Carcinoma", "Stomach Carcinoma", "Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer". Exclude criteria are: (1) Trials that start prior to 01/01/2007 and start after 12/01/2020; (2) Trials with "not yet recruiting", "suspended", "withdrawn", or "unknown" status; (3) Trials do not provide an anticipated accrual number or a start date. RESULTS: A total of 567 trials are included. 10.2% of these trials are failed. 16 (2.82%) were terminated for good reasons, and 42 (7.41%) were terminated for bad reasons. Multi-centre (P-value = 0.088) and anticipated accrual (P-value = 0.099) are potential risk factors for clinical failures in the simple logistic regression model. After considering the interaction between multi-centre and anticipated accrual, the odds ratio of anticipated accrual is 0.60 (P-value = 0.009) in single centre trials. In multi-centre trials, the odds ratio of anticipated accrual is 0.72 (P-value = 0.025). The primary reason for gastric cancer trial terminations is recruitment failure. CONCLUSION: The rate that trials terminated in gastric cancer has decreased compared to previous studies. Comparing to other types of oncology trials, poor accrual continues to be the predominant reason, followed by business or sponsor reasons. Single-center trials with smaller anticipated accrual number are more likely to be terminated which may resulted by limited resources invested to the trial. Single-center design exacerbated the difficulty of participant recruitment. Future studies need to continue tracking the rate of trial termination across oncology and whether the reasons behind them have changed.
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    Blood biochemical parameters of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) reared in the high salinity area of Bangladesh.
    Runa, RA ; Islam, MM ; Hasan, M ; Akter, MA (ScopeMed, 2022-12)
    OBJECTIVES: The study's goal was to determine the impacts of drinking saline water on the biochemical parameters of Murrah buffalo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty Murrah buffalo of both sexes, ranging in age from 6 months to 11 years, were randomly selected. 10 ml of blood samples were collected from each buffalo and processed to separate serums. The supplied drinking water and feed samples were also collected. Blood parameters-glucose, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, urea, uric acid, magnesium, phosphorous, calcium, zinc, potassium, sodium, and chloride-were analyzed. Different clinical manifestations of selected buffalo were also recorded. RESULTS: The buffaloes with skin lesions had higher serum concentrations of AST, creatinine, zinc, sodium, and chloride compared to another group. Significant age effects were found for serum concentrations of glucose (p < 0.05), creatinine (p < 0.01), uric acid (p < 0.001), phosphorus (p < 0.05), and potassium (p < 0.05). No significant age and gender effects were found for AST, ALT, urea, magnesium, calcium, zinc, sodium, and chloride. The serum concentration of creatinine was higher in female buffaloes, whereas the uric acid concentration was lower in female buffaloes compared to males. CONCLUSION: The blood parameters that were measured and remained within reference ranges show that Murrah buffaloes can adapt to saline water with little to no impairment to their liver and renal functions. The differences in the ages and sexes of the animals within the study groups highlight that mature female buffaloes suffer more from skin disorders and attempt to adjust to exotic conditions by changing the functioning of their liver and kidney.
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    Consistency of Planck, ACT, and SPT constraints on magnetically assisted recombination and forecasts for future experiments
    Galli, S ; Pogosian, L ; Jedamzik, K ; Balkenhol, L (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2022-01-11)