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    YCu(TeO3)2(NO3)(H2O)3: a novel layered tellurite.
    Mills, SJ ; Dunstan, MA ; Christy, AG (International Union of Crystallography (IUCr), 2016-08-01)
    A new hydrated yttrium copper tellurite nitrate, yttrium(III) copper(II) bis-[trioxidotellurate(IV)] nitrate trihydrate, has been synthesized hydro-thermally in a Teflon-lined autoclave and structurally determined using synchrotron radiation. The new phase is the first example containing yttrium, copper and tellurium in one structure. Its crystal structure is unique, with relatively strongly bound layers extending parallel to (020), defined by YO8, CuO4 and TeO3 polyhedra, while the NO3 (-) anions and one third of the water mol-ecules lie between those layers. The structural unit consists of [Cu2(TeO3)4](4-) loop-branched chains of {Cu⋯Te⋯Cu⋯Te} squares running parallel to [001], which are linked further into layers only through Y(O,H2O)8 polyhedra. Weak 'secondary' Te bonds and O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, involving water mol-ecules and layer O atoms, link the layers and inter-layer species. IR spectroscopic data are also presented.
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    Biogeography of functional trait diversity in the Taiwanese reef fish fauna
    Denis, V ; Chen, J-W ; Chen, Q ; Hsieh, YE ; Lin, YV ; Wang, C-W ; Wang, H-Y ; Sturaro, N (WILEY, 2019-01-01)
    The richness of Taiwanese reef fish species is inversely correlated to latitude as a direct consequence of the abiotic environment and its effects on benthic habitats. However, to date, no studies have investigated the variations in the diversity of traits (FD) linked with the role of these fishes in the ecosystem. FD is usually considered more sensitive than species richness in detecting early changes in response to disturbances, and therefore could serve as an indicator of ecological resilience to environmental changes. Here, we aim to characterize FD in the Taiwanese reef fish fauna and to document its regional variations. Six traits were used to categorize the 1,484 reef fish species occurring in four environmentally contrasted regions around Taiwan. The number of unique trait combinations (FEs), their richness (FRic), their redundancy (FR), their over-redundancy (FOR), and their vulnerability (FV) were compared among these regions. Overall, 416 FEs were identified. Their number decreased from south to north in step with regional species richness but FRic remained similar among regions. FR and FOR were higher to the south. At the local scale, variations in FEs and FRic are in concordance with the worldwide pattern of FD. High-latitude, impoverished fish assemblages, offer a range of trait combinations similar to diversified tropical assemblages. Increasing diversity in the latter mainly contributes to raising FR and supports already over-redundant entities. High vulnerability makes many combinations highly sensitive to species loss, and was higher at intermediate latitudes when using a fine resolution in trait categories. It suggests that the loss of FEs may first be characterized by an increase in their vulnerability, a pattern that could have been overlooked in previous global scale analyses. Overall, this study provides new insights into reef fish trait biogeography with potential ramifications for ecosystem functioning.
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    Reduction of hydroelastic response of a flexible floating structure by an annular flexible permeable membrane
    Selvan, SA ; Behera, H ; Sahoo, T (Springer, 2019-10-01)
    In the present study, hydroelastic response mitigation of a very large floating circular structure by an annular flexible permeable membrane is studied under the assumption of the linearized theory of water waves and small amplitude structural response. The very large floating structure is modeled based on small amplitude plate theory, while the flexible annular membrane is modeled using the two-dimensional string equation. Darcy’s law is used to model wave past the permeable annular membrane. To keep the structures in position, both the floating structures are assumed to be moored on the circular boundaries. The velocity potentials are expanded in terms of the Fourier–Bessel series in the open water, membrane-, and plate-covered regions. The solution of the physical problem is obtained using the matched eigenfunction expansion method along with the orthogonality of the vertical eigenfunctions in the open water region. On the other hand, orthogonal mode–coupling relation, satisfied by the vertical eigenfunctions in the floating flexible plate-covered region, is used when there is no spacing between the outer and the inner structures. The wave forces exerted on the inner and outer structures, deflection of the plate, and flow distribution around the inner plate are analyzed using numerical computations to understand the hydroelastic response of the inner elastic plate in the presence of the outer porous membrane. The effects of various wave and structural parameters such as wavenumber, porous-effect parameter, tensile force, width of the outer membrane, spring constants associated with the mooring joints, and the spacing between the structures are examined. The study reveals that the porous-effect parameter and the width of the annular membrane play an important role in reducing the wave forces on the inner plate. Moreover, due to the reflection and dissipation of a major part of the wave energy concentrating near the free surface, the inner floating structure experiences negligible wave loads in the case of deep water.
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    Correction: HENMT1 and piRNA Stability Are Required for Adult Male Germ Cell Transposon Repression and to Define the Spermatogenic Program in the Mouse.
    Lim, SL ; Qu, ZP ; Kortschak, RD ; Lawrence, DM ; Geoghegan, J ; Hempfling, A-L ; Bergmann, M ; Goodnow, CC ; Ormandy, CJ ; Wong, L ; Mann, J ; Scott, HS ; Jamsai, D ; Adelson, DL ; O'Bryan, MK (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2015-12)
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    Monitoring vaginal electrical resistance, follicular waves, and hormonal profile during oestrous cycle in the transition period in Bangladeshi sheep
    Talukder, MRI ; Hasan, M ; Rosy, TA ; Bari, FY ; Juyena, NS (WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH, 2018-12-01)
    INTRODUCTION: The ovarian follicular dynamics, vaginal electrical resistance (VER), progesterone (P4) and oestrogen (E2) profiles were investigated during the oestrous cycle in four indigenous ewes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Daily VER values were recorded with a heat detector. The follicles were observed and measured by trans-rectal ultrasonography. Blood was collected daily for hormonal profiles. RESULTS: A significant variation in VER values (P < 0.05) in oestrus by ewes and position in the sequence of cycles was observed. Trans-rectal ultrasonography of ovaries revealed the presence of 2-4 waves of follicular growth. Study of hormonal profiles by ELISA revealed a positive correlation between E2 concentration and development of follicles and a negative correlation between P4 concentration and their development. The concentrations of oestradiol increased in oestrus and then decreased to a basal level. Follicular growth was accompanied by a rise in the concentration of serum oestradiol. Inversely, when follicles received the stimulation for ovulation, concentration of progesterone started to fall, but after ovulation, it climbed back to its peak and remained at this state until next ovulatory follicle reached its maximum diameter. CONCLUSION: This study could help to set up a manipulative reproductive technique for improving genetic values in indigenous sheep.
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    Productive, reproductive, and estrus characteristics of different breeds of buffalo cows in Bangladesh
    Harun-Or-Rashid, M ; Sarkar, AK ; Hasan, MMI ; Hasan, M ; Juyena, NS (NETWORK VETERINARIANS BANGLADESH, 2019-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research work is to know the productive and reproductive performances and problems of local, crossbred, Nilli, and Murrah buffalo cows in selected study areas in Bangladesh. METHODOLOGY: A total of 1,241 local, crossbred, Nilli, and Murrah buffalo cows were surveyed in the selected areas with a pre-set questionnaire. Among 1,241 buffalo cows, 112 buffalo cows were randomly selected at day 0 of the estrus cycle for studying ovarian features. RESULTS: Results showed that the average age, body condition score, and body weight were significantly (p < 0.05) different among the studied breeds. Milk production in Murrah and lactation length in Nilli cows were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than indigenous, crossbred, Nilli, and indigenous, crossbred, Murrah buffalo cows, respectively. Results also illustrated that sexual maturity, estrus cycle length, insemination time after the onset of estrus, and gestation length insignificantly (p > 0.05) varied among the surveyed breed. But, the fallout of the study denoted that estrus duration, first calving age, parity number, number of service per conception, calving interval, and voluntary waiting period varied significantly (p < 0.05) in different breeds. Ovarian physiological characteristics such as vaginal electrical resistance, average number of follicles in two ovaries, and largest follicular diameter, estrogen, and progesterone at day 0 of the estrus cycle of local, crossbred, Nilli, and Murrah buffalo cows showed insignificantly (p > 0.05) differences. CONCLUSION: The study will help the veterinarian and researcher to identify the constraints for the reproductive efficiency of buffalo in Bangladesh.
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    Pleistocene climatic changes drive diversification across a tropical savanna
    Potter, S ; Xue, AT ; Bragg, JG ; Rosauer, DF ; Roycroft, EJ ; Moritz, C (WILEY, 2018-01-01)
    Spatial responses of species to past climate change depend on both intrinsic traits (climatic niche breadth, dispersal rates) and the scale of climatic fluctuations across the landscape. New capabilities in generating and analysing population genomic data, along with spatial modelling, have unleashed our capacity to infer how past climate changes have shaped populations, and by extension, complex communities. Combining these approaches, we uncover lineage diversity across four codistributed lizards from the Australian Monsoonal Tropics and explore how varying climatic tolerances interact with regional climate history to generate common vs. disparate responses to late Pleistocene change. We find more divergent spatial structuring and temporal demographic responses in the drier Kimberley region compared to the more mesic and consistently suitable Top End. We hypothesize that, in general, the effects of species' traits on sensitivity to climate fluctuation will be more evident in climatically marginal regions. If true, this points to the need in climatically marginal areas to craft more species-(or trait)-specific strategies for persistence under future climate change.
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    Chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity: are Australian practitioners missing the point?
    Conyers, R ; Costello, B ; La Gerche, A ; Tripaydonis, A ; Burns, C ; Ludlow, L ; Lange, P ; Ekert, P ; Mechinaud, F ; Cheung, M ; Martin, M ; Elliot, D (WILEY, 2017-10-01)
    BACKGROUND: It has long been established that cardiotoxicity occurs as a result of exposure to certain chemotherapeutics, particularly anthracyclines. Historically, clinicians equate cardiotoxicity with a poor prognosis, in a small percentage of patients and deem long-term surveillance as optional. Emerging evidence suggests that anthracycline cardiotoxicity (ACT) is a life-long risk with an incidence approaching 20%. AIMS: To elucidate the incidence of anthracycline cardiotoxicity within a current paediatric oncology survivor cohort. METHODS: Participants were identified through the Haematology-Oncology database at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Patients were identified from a retrospective audit of outpatient attendances between January 2008 and December 2015. Patients with a cancer diagnosis exposed to anthracyclines were eligible for the study. Patient demographics and echocardiogram findings were recorded with patients subcategorised according to degree of ACT. More significant ACT defined as fractional shortening (FS) <24% and less significant if FS 24-28% or a decline in baseline ejection fraction of >10%. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-six of a total 481 identified patients were eligible for study inclusion. Twenty patients displayed significant ACT with FS <24%. Ten patients had a FS 24-28% and 25 patients with a decline in ejection fraction from baseline of >10%. Overall, 6.6% demonstrated significant cardiac complications, whilst 19.6 % demonstrated some degree of ACT and decline in myocardial function. When stratified for cumulative anthracycline dose, the incidence of severe cardiac dysfunction was 5.1% (<250 mg/m2 ) and 25% (>250 mg/m2 ) CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates, in keeping with modern literature, the higher incidence of anthracycline associated cardiac toxicity and a need for better surveillance and follow up.
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    Impaired bone and muscle development in young people treated with antiepileptic drugs
    Simm, PJ ; Seah, S ; Gorelik, A ; Gilbert, L ; Nuguid, J ; Werther, GA ; Mackay, MT ; Freeman, JL ; Petty, SJ ; Wark, JD (WILEY, 2017-11-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are associated with reduced bone density, balance impairment, and increased fracture risk in adults. However, pediatric data are limited. Therefore, we aimed to examine bone, muscle, and balance outcomes in young patients taking AEDs. METHODS: We undertook a case-control study utilizing an AED exposure-discordant matched-pair approach. Subjects were aged 5-18 years with at least 12 months of AED exposure. Pairs were twins, nontwin siblings and first cousins, sex- and age-matched (to within 2 years), allowing for greater power than with unrelated control subjects. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and muscle force/balance were tested, with questionnaires were administered for bone health and epilepsy details. RESULTS: Twenty-three pairs were recruited, (median age 12.9 years [subjects] and 13.5 years [controls])-7 twin, 14 sibling, and 2 cousin pairs. Those taking AEDs had an increased prevalence of fractures (15 fractures in 8 subjects, compared with 4 fractures in 3 controls, p < 0.01). Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) measured by pQCT at the 4% site (tibia) was reduced by 14% (p = 0.03) in subjects. Subjects exerted a decreased maximum force compared to body weight (Fmax total/g) at the tibia. There were no differences seen in either bone mineral parameters measured by DXA or balance measures. SIGNIFICANCE: Young people taking AEDs reported more fractures and had reductions in tibial vBMD and lower limb muscle force compared to their matched controls. These findings suggest that further exploration of bone health issues of young patients on AED therapy is required. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm these changes in the muscle-bone unit and to further explore the clinical outcomes.
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    Validation and application of a novel integrated genetic screening method to a cohort of 1,112 men with idiopathic azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia
    Oud, MS ; Ramos, L ; O'Bryan, MK ; McLachlan, RI ; Okutman, O ; Viville, S ; de Vries, PF ; Smeets, DFCM ; Lugtenberg, D ; Hehir-Kwa, JY ; Gilissen, C ; van de Vorst, M ; Vissers, LELM ; Hoischen, A ; Meijerink, AM ; Fleischer, K ; Veltman, JA ; Noordam, MJ (WILEY, 2017-11-01)
    Microdeletions of the Y chromosome (YCMs), Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), and CFTR mutations are known genetic causes of severe male infertility, but the majority of cases remain idiopathic. Here, we describe a novel method using single molecule Molecular Inversion Probes (smMIPs), to screen infertile men for mutations and copy number variations affecting known disease genes. We designed a set of 4,525 smMIPs targeting the coding regions of causal (n = 6) and candidate (n = 101) male infertility genes. After extensive validation, we screened 1,112 idiopathic infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. In addition to five chromosome YCMs and six other sex chromosomal anomalies, we identified five patients with rare recessive mutations in CFTR as well as a patient with a rare heterozygous frameshift mutation in SYCP3 that may be of clinical relevance. This results in a genetic diagnosis in 11-17 patients (1%-1.5%), a yield that may increase significantly when more genes are confidently linked to male infertility. In conclusion, we developed a flexible and scalable method to reliably detect genetic causes of male infertility. The assay consolidates the detection of different types of genetic variation while increasing the diagnostic yield and detection precision at the same or lower price compared with currently used methods.