Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 21
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Fenton-RAFT Polymerization: An "On-Demand" Chain-Growth Method
    Reyhani, A ; McKenzie, TG ; Ranji-Burachaloo, H ; Fu, Q ; Qiao, GG (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2017-05-29)
    Fine control over the architecture and/or microstructure of synthetic polymers is fast becoming a reality owing to the development of efficient and versatile polymerization techniques and conjugation reactions. However, the transition of these syntheses to automated, programmable, and high-throughput operating systems is a challenging step needed to translate the vast potential of precision polymers into machine-programmable polymers for biological and functional applications. Chain-growth polymerizations are particularly appealing for their ability to form structurally and chemically well-defined macromolecules through living/controlled polymerization techniques. Even using the latest polymerization technologies, the macromolecular engineering of complex functional materials often requires multi-step syntheses and purification of intermediates, and results in sub-optimal yields. To develop a proof-of-concept of a framework polymerization technique that is readily amenable to automation requires several key characteristics. In this study, a new approach is described that is believed to meet these requirements, thus opening avenues toward automated polymer synthesis.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Antifogging Surface Facilitated by Nanoscale Coatings with Controllable Hydrophobicity and Cross-Linking Density
    Nam, E ; Wong, EHH ; Tan, S ; Fu, Q ; Blencowe, A ; Qiao, GG (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2017-01-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Sono-RAFT Polymerization in Aqueous Medium
    McKenzie, TG ; Colombo, E ; Fu, Q ; Ashokkumar, M ; Qiao, GG (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2017-09-25)
    The ultrasonic irradiation of aqueous solution is demonstrated to be a suitable source of initiating radicals for a controlled radical polymerization when conducted in the presence of a thiocarbonylthio-containing reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent. This allows for a highly "green" method of externally regulated/controlled polymerization with a potentially broad scope for polymerizable monomers and/or polymer structures.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Fenton-Chemistry-Mediated Radical Polymerization
    Reyhani, A ; McKenzie, TG ; Fu, Q ; Qiao, GG (Wiley, 2019-09-01)
    In this review, the power of a classical chemical reaction, the Fenton reaction for initiating radical polymerizations, is demonstrated. The reaction between the Fenton reagents (i.e., Fe2+ and H2O2) generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can act as radical initiators for the polymerization of vinyl monomers. Since the Fenton reaction is fast, easy to set up, cheap, and biocompatible, this unique chemistry is widely employed in various polymer synthesis studies via free radical polymerization or reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, and is utilized in a wide range of applications, such as the fabrication of biomaterials, hydrogels, and core‐shell particles. Biologically activated Fenton‐mediated radical polymerization, which can be performed in aerobic environments, are particularly useful for applications in biomedical systems.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    MOF Scaffold for a High‐Performance Mixed‐Matrix Membrane
    Xie, K ; Fu, Q ; Webley, PA ; Qiao, GG (Wiley, 2018-07-09)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Blood-Catalyzed RAFT Polymerization
    Reyhani, A ; Nothling, MD ; Ranji-Burachaloo, H ; McKenzie, TG ; Fu, Q ; Tan, S ; Bryant, G ; Qiao, GG (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2018-08-06)
    The use of hemoglobin (Hb) contained within red blood cells to drive a controlled radical polymerization via a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process is reported for the first time. No pre-treatment of the Hb or cells was required prior to their use as polymerization catalysts, indicating the potential for synthetic engineering in complex biological microenvironments without the need for ex vivo techniques. Owing to the naturally occurring prevalence of the reagents employed in the catalytic system (Hb and hydrogen peroxide), this approach may facilitate the development of new strategies for in vivo cell engineering with synthetic macromolecules.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    MOF Scaffold for a High-Performance Mixed-Matrix Membrane
    Xie, K ; Fu, Q ; Webley, PA ; Qiao, GG (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2018-07-09)
    A novel composite membrane consisting of an interconnected MOF scaffold coated with cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been developed. As a result of its unique structure, the membrane shows an exceptional 18-fold permeability enhancement as compared to pristine PEG membranes, without compromising the selectivity. This performance is unattainable with current mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs). Our optimized membrane has a permeability of 2700 Barrer with a CO2 /N2 selectivity of 35, which surpasses the latest Robeson upper bound.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    From UV to NIR: A Full-Spectrum Metal-Free Photocatalyst for Efficient Polymer Synthesis in Aqueous Conditions
    Allison-Logan, S ; Fu, Q ; Sun, Y ; Liu, M ; Xie, J ; Tang, J ; Qiao, GG (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2020-09-15)
    Photo-mediation offers unparalleled spatiotemporal control over controlled radical polymerizations (CRP). Photo-induced electron/energy transfer reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (PET-RAFT) polymerization is particularly versatile owing to its oxygen tolerance and wide range of compatible photocatalysts. In recent years, broadband- and near-infrared (NIR)-mediated polymerizations have been of particular interest owing to their potential for solar-driven chemistry and biomedical applications. In this work, we present the first example of a novel photocatalyst for both full broadband- and NIR-mediated CRP in aqueous conditions. Well-defined polymers were synthesized in water under blue, green, red, and NIR light irradiation. Exploiting the oxygen tolerant and aqueous nature of our system, we also report PET-RAFT polymerization at the microliter scale in a mammalian cell culture medium.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    From UV to NIR: A Full-Spectrum Metal-Free Photocatalyst for Efficient Polymer Synthesis in Aqueous Conditions
    Allison-Logan, S ; Fu, Q ; Sun, Y ; Liu, M ; Xie, J ; Tang, J ; Qiao, GG (Wiley, 2020-01-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A novel solid state photocatalyst for living radical polymerization under UV irradiation
    Fu, Q ; McKenzie, TG ; Ren, JM ; Tan, S ; Nam, E ; Qiao, GG (Nature Publishing Group: Open Access Journals - Option C, 2016-02-11)
    This study presents the development of a novel solid state photocatalyst for the photoinduced controlled radical polymerization of methacrylates under mild UV irradiation (λmax ≈ 365 nm) in the absence of conventional photoinitiators, metal-catalysts or dye sensitizers. The photocatalyst design was based on our previous finding that organic amines can act in a synergistic photochemical reaction with thiocarbonylthio compounds to afford well controlled polymethacrylates under UV irradiation. Therefore, in the current contribution an amine-rich polymer was covalently grafted onto a solid substrate, thus creating a heterogeneous catalyst that would allow for facile removal, recovery and recyclability when employed for such photopolymerization reactions. Importantly, the polymethacrylates synthesized using the solid state photocatalyst (ssPC) show similarly excellent chemical and structural integrity as those catalysed by free amines. Moreover, the ssPC could be readily recovered and re-used, with multiple cycles of polymerization showing minimal effect on the integrity of the catalyst. Finally, the ssPC was employed in various photo-"click" reactions, permitting high yielding conjugations under photochemical control.