Architecture, Building and Planning - Research Publications

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    All that glitters is not gold: the effect of mining activities and royalties on the built environment of remote North East Arnhem Land
    Robertson, H ; BRENNAN, A ; GOAD, P (Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (SAHANZ), 2016)
    This paper explores the effects of mining activities and royalties on the Northern Territory’s remote northeast Arnhem Land region, including the mining town of Nhulunbuy (with a 93.8% non-Indigenous population) and surrounding Indigenous communities, and shows that the associated architectures do not provide long-term benefit to local people. In 2014, Rio Tinto Alcan closed their alumina refinery in Nhulunbuy. This resulted in the redundancy or redeployment of 1100 workers and a significant reduction in the town’s 4000 strong population. The closure of the refinery calls into question the role of mining settlements and their surrounding regions beyond the life of a mine. Using the case study of northeast Arnhem Land, the paper describes the genesis of the Nhulunbuy Township in the late 1960s and how it precipitated the Indigenous land rights movement in the Northern Territory and the repatriation to homelands throughout the region. The paper analyses the architecture of Nhulunbuy, whose public, commercial and residential buildings were almost exclusively designed and built by the mining company, in comparison to the architectures that emerged through mining royalty funds distributed to traditional land owner groups such as the Gumatj and Rirratjingu Aboriginal Corporations, the Yirrkala Dhanbul Association and the Arnhem Land Trust. It historicises and critiques their respective contextual response to environmental, social and adaptive economic factors. Nhulunbuy has grown to become a significant resource centre for the northeast Arnhem Land region providing services to surrounding Indigenous communities and homelands. Thus the paper turns to a discussion of the recent history of the alumina refinery closure and the subsequent ramifications for the region’s architecture, both in the mining town and for mining royalty funded structures throughout the region. With the sudden closure of other mines throughout remote Australia, such as the Alinta coal mine at Leigh Creek, South Australia, which also acts as a service centre to the nearby Iga Warta Indigenous community, this paper is both a timely and relevant contribution.
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    Reconsidering the Safety in Numbers Effect for Vulnerable Road Users: An Application of Agent-Based Modeling
    Thompson, J ; Savino, G ; Stevenson, M (Taylor and Francis Group, 2015)
    OBJECTIVE: Increasing levels of active transport provide benefits in relation to chronic disease and emissions reduction but may be associated with an increased risk of road trauma. The safety in numbers (SiN) effect is often regarded as a solution to this issue; however, the mechanisms underlying its influence are largely unknown. We aimed to (1) replicate the SiN effect within a simple, simulated environment and (2) vary bicycle density within the environment to better understand the circumstances under which SiN applies. METHODS: Using an agent-based modeling approach, we constructed a virtual transport system that increased the number of bicycles from 9% to 35% of total vehicles over a period of 1,000 time units while holding the number of cars in the system constant. We then repeated this experiment under conditions of progressively decreasing bicycle density. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the SiN effect can be reproduced in a virtual environment, closely approximating the exponential relationships between cycling numbers and the relative risk of collision as shown in observational studies. The association, however, was highly contingent upon bicycle density. The relative risk of collisions between cars and bicycles with increasing bicycle numbers showed an association that is progressively linear at decreasing levels of density. CONCLUSIONS: Agent-based modeling may provide a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms underpinning the relationships previously observed between volume and risk under the assumptions of SiN. The SiN effect may apply only under circumstances in which bicycle density also increases over time. Additional mechanisms underpinning the SiN effect, independent of behavioral adjustment by drivers, are explored.
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    The Adaptation of Tertiary Admissions Practices to Growth and Diversity
    Harvey, A ; BRETT, M ; Cardak, B ; Sheridan, A ; Stratford, J ; Tootell, N ; Mcallister, R (La Trobe University, 2016)
    The expansion of higher education places adaptive pressure on institutional and policy frameworks that were originally designed at times of lower levels of participation. This adaptive pressure is evident in changes to admission and selection practices, and has become more acute with the introduction of demand driven funding for undergraduate Commonwealth supported places. Universities seeking to optimise their market share in line with their values and strategic objectives are increasingly utilising direct admissions rather than historically dominant state centralised admissions processes. Direct entry pathways are also being utilised by some institutions as a means of increasing their share of disadvantaged students in particular. Both centralised and direct admissions pathways are also drawing on contextual data – such as the geo-demographic background of the applicant, school attended, perceived academic potential, or volunteer and community service – in the assessment process (Harvey 2014). The growth and complexity of university admissions practices raises two key questions. First, what impact is rising complexity in admissions practices having on student decision-making, with particular emphasis on students from disadvantaged backgrounds? And, second, how are universities and state-based tertiary admissions centres (TACs) responding to the challenges associated with rising student participation, diversity and mobility, as well as complexity in admissions practice?
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    Excellence or Exit: Ensuring Anangu Futures through Education
    Lea, T ; Tootell, N ; Wolgemuth, J ; Halkon, C ; Douglas, J (School of Social and Policy Research, Charles Darwin University, 2009)
    The discussion and recommendations in this document aim to present Anangu leaders, schools and the enabling policy community that supports schools, with key points for debate and consideration, as the platform to develop an ambitious charter for education reform. The review advocates the need to change the approach to schooling at primary, middle and senior school levels as the key means to transform training, learning and employment ‘pathways’ into journeys that lead to exciting destinations and not disappointing dead ends.
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    Colabella, S ; Pone, S (Electa, 2014)
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    Access, quality and governance in higher education: local colleges and universities (LCUs) in the Philippines
    Montemar, L ; Recio, R ; Hecita, IJ ; de la Cruz, MJ ; Rogel, C ; Galuna, F ( 2014)
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    Borders in Focus: IPCS Seminar and Symposium
    Pieris, A (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2015)
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    In-between: Spaces for Border-thinking
    Pieris, A (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2015)
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    Architectures of the Pacific Carceral Archipelago: Second World War Internment and Prisoner of War Camps
    Pieris, A (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016)
    Characterisations of the Pacific Basin as a tropical archipelago essentialise its geocultural diversity as an alternative way of envisioning the region and its politics. This paper offers a darker projection of this archipelagic imagination as one forged by imperial competition and wartime violence. It traces its genesis across the history of the Second World War internment and prisoner of war camps. Their spatial proliferation as a carceral geography produces a variety of temporary environments where civil and legal rights are suspended. The roles adopted by captors in their treatment of prisoners reflect the social prejudices of the period, the politics of imperialism and the specific responses of warring nations during various stages of the conflict. This paper asks how architectural scholarship might address this imperial history. It draws together diverse models of incarceration related to the Pacific War, acknowledging the different treatment of racially different colonial and national subjects and tracing their passage through multiple spatial configurations of camps. The camps in Australia are contextualised in their wider Pacific geography with special attention to Victoria’s Tatura Group.
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    Changi: A Penal Genealogy across the Pacific War
    Pieris, A (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016-01-02)
    Anglophone scholarship on the Pacific War in Singapore is largely focused on records and memoirs of captive allied forces, extending imperial histories of that period. The punitive environments that incarcerated soldiers and civilians are examined through that lens. This essay approaches the Pacific War as an interregnum in a longer penal genealogy and a historical border to political decolonisation. It reviews this literature as significant for understanding the evolution of the colonial prison and its wartime transformation into a Prisoner of War (POW) camp environment posing questions about incarceration, citizenship and penal labour. It asks how residential carceral facilities such as the prison, the POW camp and the home are adapted and transformed. The main foci of this paper and its genealogy are the Changi Prison and the Changi POW Camp.