Medicine (Western Health) - Research Publications

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    Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with breathlessness in Australia: weighted using the 2016 Australian census.
    Toelle, BG ; Ampon, RD ; Abramson, MJ ; James, AL ; Maguire, GP ; Wood-Baker, R ; Johns, DP ; Marks, GB (Wiley, 2021-05)
    Access to up-to-date Australian disease prevalence estimates assists health services and consumer organisations to plan and allocate resources. The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study was conducted between 2006 and 2012 and provided chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (post-bronchodilator airflow limitation) prevalence estimates weighted to the 2006 Australian census. Using the 2016 Australian census, an updated prevalence estimate of all COPD is 8.30% (95% confidence interval = 6.59%-10.01%) for adults aged 40 or more years in Australia and includes 2.52% with mild breathlessness, 0.99% with moderate breathlessness and 0.91% with severe breathlessness.
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    A blended learning exercise physiology theory module that supports student autonomy and improves academic performance.
    Julien, BL ; Tangalakis, K ; Hayes, A ; Lexis, L (American Physiological Society, 2022-09-01)
    A limited number of studies have explored the impact of blended exercise physiology theory curricula on student learning and experience. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an exercise physiology blended learning theory module on student performance, engagement, and perceptions. The module, which comprised a range of elements (student guide, lecturer-recorded videos, supplementary videos, formative quizzes, workshops, and discussion forum), was implemented in a third-year subject taken by students in nonspecialist undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees. Students chose which elements to engage with to support their learning. Exam performance was assessed by comparing exam marks from fully face-to-face delivery to the blended delivery with an independent t test. Student perceptions were determined via an end-of-module questionnaire comprised of Likert-scale questions and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the Likert-scale responses, and qualitative content analysis was conducted on the open-ended responses. Student engagement with online resources was determined through analysis of access statistics from the learning management system. Student exam marks in the blended learning student group were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than in the face-to-face group, even though the questions were of a higher Bloom's level in the blended learning group. Students preferred blended delivery over fully face-to-face delivery. Most students accessed the student guide, lecturer-recorded videos, and quizzes, with supplementary videos, workshops, and discussion forums accessed by fewer students. In conclusion, a blended exercise physiology theory module improved student exam performance and was positively perceived by students, and engagement with the elements of the module was varied.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Few studies have explored the impact of blended delivery of exercise physiology theory curricula on student learning and experience. This study investigated the impact of a novel blended model on student learning and experience. The module comprised a range of elements (student guide, lecturer-recorded videos, supplementary videos, formative quizzes, workshops, and discussion forum), where students were able to choose which elements to engage with to support their learning.
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    Mature mediastinal teratoma with tumor rupture into airway
    Anderson, JE ; Taylor, MR ; Romberg, EK ; Riehle, KJ ; Kapur, R ; Crocker, ME ; Crotty, EE ; Hergenroeder, G ; Greenberg, SLM (Elsevier BV, 2022-06-01)
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    COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) presenting as appendicitis with shock.
    Anderson, JE ; Campbell, JA ; Durowoju, L ; Greenberg, SLM ; Rice-Townsend, SE ; Gow, KW ; Avansino, J (Elsevier BV, 2021-08)
    Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an identified complication of the COVID-19 infection. A common presentation of both COVID-19 and MIS-C is acute abdominal pain, sometimes mimicking appendicitis. We report two cases of patients initially diagnosed with appendicitis who either presented with or developed signs of shock and were found to have MIS-C. An 8-year-old girl who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) presented with fever, abdominal pain, and shock with ultrasound findings consistent with acute appendicitis. After being treated for MIS-C, she underwent appendectomy and improved. Final pathology was consistent with acute appendicitis. A 9-year-old girl who tested negative for COVID RT-PCR presented with uncomplicated appendicitis and underwent laparoscopic appendectomy, but developed post-operative fever and shock. Antibody testing was positive and she responded to treatment for MIS-C. Histology showed lymphohistiocytic inflammation within the muscularis propria, mesoappendix and serosa without the typical neutrophil-rich inflammation and mucosal involvement of acute appendicitis. The diagnosis was MIS-C, not appendicitis. Given the new reality of the COVID-19 pandemic, pediatric surgeons must be aware of MIS-C as a possible diagnosis and should understand the diagnostic criteria and current treatment guidelines.
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    Addressing unmet needs for persons with severe mental illness: Lessons from the Partners in Recovery initiative (Gippsland)
    Isaacs, A ; Beauchamp, A ; Sutton, K ; Kocaali, N ; Craig, L ; Garrett, M (Ubiquity Press, Ltd., 2021-02-26)
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    Tongue muscle mass is associated with total grey matter and hippocampal volumes in Dementia with Lewy Bodies
    Borda, MG ; Castellanos-Perilla, N ; Tovar-Rios, DA ; Ferreira, D ; Duque, G ; Aarsland, D (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2022-05-01)
    BACKGROUND: Age-related neurodegeneration, sarcopenia, and ectopic fat accumulation are conditions with shared pathways that remain poorly understood. We have measured muscle volume and fat accumulation in masseter and tongue muscle, and aim to explore their association with the total grey matter volume using MRI in older adults recently diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, people newly diagnosed with mild AD (n=33) and DLB (n=20) underwent structural head MRI. Muscle volume and intramuscular fat (iMAT) of the tongue and masseter were computed using Slice-O-Matic software for segmentation. Total grey volume and hippocampal volumetric segmentation were performed with the FreeSurfer image analysis suite version 6.0. Independent regression models were employed to analyse the associations. RESULTS: Tongue iMAT was higher and total grey volume lower in DLB compared to AD. In the DLB group, tongue muscle was positively associated with total grey matter volume Est 0.92 (SE 0.24 p-value 0.002), left- Est 0.01 (SE 0.0028 p-value 0,002), and right- Est 0.0088 (SE 0.0027 p-value: 0.005) hippocampal volume. There were no statistically significant results for AD. CONCLUSION: Tongue muscle volume was positively associated with hippocampal and total grey volume in DLB. Longitudinal designs are required to explore the extent and significance of this association.
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    Validation of a Semiautomatic Image Analysis Software for the Quantification of Musculoskeletal Tissues
    Imani, M ; Bani Hassan, E ; Vogrin, S ; Ch'Ng, ASTN ; Lane, NE ; Cauley, JA ; Duque, G (SPRINGER, 2021-09-13)
    Accurate quantification of bone, muscle, and their components is still an unmet need in the musculoskeletal field. Current methods to quantify tissue volumes in 3D images are expensive, labor-intensive, and time-consuming; thus, a reliable, valid, and quick application is highly needed. Tissue Compass is a standalone software for semiautomatic segmentation and automatic quantification of musculoskeletal organs. To validate the software, cross-sectional micro-CT scans images of rat femur (n = 19), and CT images of hip and abdomen (n = 100) from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study were used to quantify bone, hematopoietic marrow (HBM), and marrow adipose tissue (MAT) using commercial manual software as a comparator. Also, abdominal CT scans (n = 100) were used to quantify psoas muscle volumes and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) using the same software. We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients, individual intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and Bland-Altman limits of agreement together with Bland-Altman plots to show the inter- and intra-observer agreement between Tissue Compass and commercially available software. In the animal study, the agreement between Tissue Compass and commercial software was r > 0.93 and ICC > 0.93 for rat femur measurements. Bland-Altman limits of agreement was - 720.89 (- 1.5e+04, 13,074.00) for MAT, 4421.11 (- 1.8e+04, 27,149.73) for HBM and - 6073.32 (- 2.9e+04, 16,388.37) for bone. The inter-observer agreement for QCT human study between two observers was r > 0.99 and ICC > 0.99. Bland-Altman limits of agreement was 0.01 (- 0.07, 0.10) for MAT in hip, 0.02 (- 0.08, 0.12) for HBM in hip, 0.05 (- 0.15, 0.25) for bone in hip, 0.02 (- 0.18, 0.22) for MAT in L1, 0.00 (- 0.16, 0.16) for HBM in L1, and 0.02 (- 0.23, 0.27) for bone in L1. The intra-observer agreement for QCT human study between the two applications was r > 0.997 and ICC > 0.99. Bland-Altman limits of agreement was 0.03 (- 0.13, 0.20) for MAT in hip, 0.05 (- 0.08, 0.18) for HBM in hip, 0.05 (- 0.24, 0.34) for bone in hip, - 0.02 (- 0.34, 0.31) for MAT in L1, - 0.14 (- 0.44, 0.17) for HBM in L1, - 0.29 (- 0.62, 0.05) for bone in L1, 0.03 (- 0.08, 0.15) for IMAT in psoas, and 0.02 (- 0.35, 0.38) for muscle in psoas. Compared to a conventional application, Tissue Compass demonstrated high accuracy and non-inferiority while also facilitating easier analyses. Tissue Compass could become the tool of choice to diagnose tissue loss/gain syndromes in the future by requiring a small number of CT sections to detect tissue volumes and fat infiltration.
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    New horizons in falls prevention and management for older adults: a global initiative
    Montero-Odasso, M ; van der Velde, N ; Alexander, NB ; Becker, C ; Blain, H ; Camicioli, R ; Close, J ; Duan, L ; Duque, G ; Ganz, DA ; Gomez, F ; Hausdorff, JM ; Hogan, DB ; Jauregui, JR ; Kenny, RA ; Lipsitz, LA ; Logan, PA ; Lord, SR ; Mallet, L ; Marsh, DR ; Martin, FC ; Milisen, K ; Nieuwboer, A ; Petrovic, M ; Ryg, J ; Sejdic, E ; Sherrington, C ; Skelton, DA ; Speechley, M ; Tan, MP ; Todd, C ; van der Cammen, T ; Verghese, J ; Kamkar, N ; Sarquis-Adamson, Y ; Masud, T (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2021-05-26)
    BACKGROUND: falls and fall-related injuries are common in older adults, have negative effects both on quality of life and functional independence and are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Current clinical approaches and advice from falls guidelines vary substantially between countries and settings, warranting a standardised approach. At the first World Congress on Falls and Postural Instability in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in December 2019, a worldwide task force of experts in falls in older adults, committed to achieving a global consensus on updating clinical practice guidelines for falls prevention and management by incorporating current and emerging evidence in falls research. Moreover, the importance of taking a person-centred approach and including perspectives from patients, caregivers and other stakeholders was recognised as important components of this endeavour. Finally, the need to specifically include recent developments in e-health was acknowledged, as well as the importance of addressing differences between settings and including developing countries. METHODS: a steering committee was assembled and 10 working Groups were created to provide preliminary evidence-based recommendations. A cross-cutting theme on patient's perspective was also created. In addition, a worldwide multidisciplinary group of experts and stakeholders, to review the proposed recommendations and to participate in a Delphi process to achieve consensus for the final recommendations, was brought together. CONCLUSION: in this New Horizons article, the global challenges in falls prevention are depicted, the goals of the worldwide task force are summarised and the conceptual framework for development of a global falls prevention and management guideline is presented.
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    Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Relationships Between Muscle and Bone in Indian Men and Women
    Zengin, A ; Kulkarni, B ; Khadilkar, AV ; Kajale, N ; Ekbote, V ; Tandon, N ; Bhargava, SK ; Sachdev, HS ; Sinha, S ; Scott, D ; Kinra, S ; Fall, CHD ; Ebeling, PR (SPRINGER, 2021-05-09)
    Both ethnicity and age are important determinants of musculoskeletal health. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia, assess the suitability of current diagnostic guidelines, and explore muscle-bone relationships in adults from India. A total of 1009 young (20-35 years) and 1755 older (> 40 years) men and women from existing studies were collated and pooled for the analysis. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the hip and spine, and fat and lean mass; hand dynamometer measured hand grip strength (HGS). Indian-specific cut-points for appendicular lean mass (ALM), ALM index (ALMI) and HGS were calculated from young Indian (-2SD mean) populations. Sarcopenia was defined using cut-points from The Foundations for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH), revised European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2), Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS), and Indian-specific cut-points. Low lean mass cut-points were then compared for their predictive ability in identifying low HGS. The relationship between muscle variables (ALM, ALMI, HGS) and aBMD was explored, and sex differences were tested. Indian-specific cut-points (men-HGS:22.93 kg, ALM:15.41 kg, ALMI:6.03 kg/m2; women-HGS:10.76 kg, ALM:9.95 kg, ALMI:4.64 kg/m2) were lower than existing definitions. The Indian-specific definition had the lowest, while EWGSOP2 ALMI had the highest predictive ability in detecting low HGS (men:AUC = 0.686, women:AUC = 0.641). There were sex differences in associations between aBMD and all muscle variables, with greater positive associations in women than in men. The use of appropriate cut-points for diagnosing low lean mass and physical function is necessary in ethnic populations for accurate sarcopenia assessment. Muscle-bone relationships are more tightly coupled during ageing in Indian women than men.