Medicine (Western Health) - Research Publications

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    Depression: An Important Comorbidity With Metabolic Syndrome in a General Population
    Dunbar, JA ; Reddy, P ; Davis-Lameloise, N ; Philpot, B ; Laatikainen, T ; Kilkkinen, A ; Bunker, SJ ; Best, JD ; Vartiainen, E ; Lo, SK ; Janus, ED (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2008-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: There is a recognized association among depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine in a sample representative of the general population whether depression, anxiety, and psychological distress are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Three cross-sectional surveys including clinical health measures were completed in rural regions of Australia during 2004-2006. A stratified random sample (n = 1,690, response rate 48%) of men and women aged 25-84 years was selected from the electoral roll. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and psychological distress by the Kessler 10 measure. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was associated with depression but not psychological distress or anxiety. Participants with the metabolic syndrome had higher scores for depression (n = 409, mean score 3.41, 95% CI 3.12-3.70) than individuals without the metabolic syndrome (n = 936, mean 2.95, 95% CI 2.76-3.13). This association was also present in 338 participants with the metabolic syndrome and without diabetes (mean score 3.37, 95% CI 3.06-3.68). Large waist circumference and low HDL cholesterol showed significant and independent associations with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show an association between metabolic syndrome and depression in a heterogeneous sample. The presence of depression in individuals with the metabolic syndrome has implications for clinical management.
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    Growth Environment and Sex Differences in Lipids, Body Shape and Diabetes Risk
    Schooling, CM ; Lam, TH ; Thomas, GN ; Cowling, BJ ; Heys, M ; Janus, ED ; Leung, GM ; Miranda, JJ (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2007-10-24)
    BACKGROUND: Sex differences in lipids and body shape, but not diabetes, increase at puberty. Hong Kong Chinese are mainly first or second generation migrants from China, who have shared an economically developed environment for years, but grew up in very different environments in Hong Kong or contemporaneously undeveloped Guangdong, China. We assessed if environment during growth had sex-specific associations with lipids and body shape, but not diabetes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used multivariable regression in a population-based cross-sectional study, undertaken from 1994 to 1996, of 2537 Hong Kong Chinese residents aged 25 to 74 years with clinical measurements of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) risk, including HDL-cholesterol, ApoB, diabetes and obesity. Waist-hip ratio was higher (mean difference 0.01, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.02) in men, who had grown up in an economically developed rather than undeveloped environment, as was apolipoprotein B (0.05 g/L, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.10), adjusted for age, socio-economic status and lifestyle. In contrast, the same comparison was associated in women with lower waist-hip ratio (-0.01, 95% CI -0.001 to -0.02) and higher HDL-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.0004 to 0.10). The associations in men and women were significantly different (p-values<0.001). There were no such differences for diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Growth in a developed environment with improved nutrition may promote higher sex-steroids at puberty producing an atherogenic lipid profile and male fat pattern in men but the opposite in women, with tracking of increased male IHD risk into adult life.
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    Once-yearly zoledronic acid in hip fracture prevention
    Demontiero, O ; Duque, G (DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2009-01-01)
    Osteoporosis is an escalating global problem. Hip fractures, the most catastrophic complication of osteoporosis, continue to cause significant mortality and morbidity despite increasing availability of effective preventative agents. Among these agents, oral bisphosphonates have been the first choice for the treatment and prevention of osteoporotic fractures. However, the use of oral bisphosphonates, especially in the older population, has been limited by their side effects and method of administration thus compromising their persistent use. The resultant low adherence by patients has undermined their full potential and has been associated with an increase in the incidence of fragility fractures. Recently, annual intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL) has been approved for osteoporosis. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated ZOL to be safe, have good tolerability and produce significant effect on bone mass and microarchitecture. Adherence has also been shown to be better with ZOL. Furthermore two large trials firmly demonstrated significant anti-osteoporotic effect (approximately 59% relative risk reduction of hip fractures) and mortality benefit (28% reduction in mortality) of ZOL in older persons with recent hip fractures. In this review, we report the current evidence on the use of ZOL for the prevention of hip fractures in the elderly. We also report the pharmacological characteristics and the advantages and disadvantages of ZOL in this particular group.
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    Risk Factors forMycobacterium ulceransInfection, Southeastern Australia
    Quek, TYJ ; Athan, E ; Henry, MJ ; Pasco, JA ; Redden-Hoare, J ; Hughes, A ; Johnson, PDR (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2007-11)
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    The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian populations is only partly explained by season and latitude
    van der Mei, IAF ; Ponsonby, A-L ; Engelsen, O ; Pasco, JA ; McGrath, JJ ; Eyles, DW ; Blizzard, L ; Dwyer, T ; Lucas, R ; Jones, G (US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE, 2007-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: Inadequate sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake can result in vitamin D insufficiency. However, limited data are available on actual vitamin D status and predictors in healthy individuals in different regions and by season. METHODS: We compared vitamin D status [25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D] in people < 60 years of age using data from cross-sectional studies of three regions across Australia: southeast Queensland (27 degrees S; 167 females and 211 males), Geelong region (38 degrees S; 561 females), and Tasmania (43 degrees S; 432 females and 298 males). RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (
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    The association of levels of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in rural Australian adults
    Vaughan, C ; Schoo, A ; Janus, ED ; Philpot, B ; Davis-Lameloise, N ; Lo, SK ; Laatikainen, T ; Vartiainen, E ; Dunbar, JA (BMC, 2009-07-31)
    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) reduces risk factors related to metabolic syndrome. Rurality influences the way people incorporate physical activity into daily life. The aim of this study is to determine the association of PA level with metabolic syndrome in a rural Australian population. The influence of adiposity on these associations is also investigated. METHODS: Three cross-sectional population health surveys were conducted in south-east Australia during 2004-2006 using a random population sample (n = 1563, participation rate 49%) aged 25-74 years. PA was assessed via a self-administered questionnaire, and components of the metabolic syndrome via anthropometric measurements taken by specially trained nurses and laboratory tests. RESULTS: Approximately one-fifth of participants were inactive in leisure-time and over one-third had metabolic syndrome (men 39%, women 33%; p = 0.022). There was an inverse association between level of PA and metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). Men who were inactive in leisure-time were more than twice as likely and women more than three times as likely to have metabolic syndrome compared with those having high PA. Body mass index (BMI) is a mediating factor in the association between level of PA and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Some PA is better than none if adults, particularly women, are to reduce their risk of metabolic syndrome and associated vascular diseases. Specialised interventions that take rurality into consideration are recommended for adults who are inactive.
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    Learning while evaluating: the use of an electronic evaluation portfolio in a geriatric medicine clerkship.
    Duque, G ; Finkelstein, A ; Roberts, A ; Tabatabai, D ; Gold, SL ; Winer, LR ; Members of the Division of Geriatric Medicine, McGill University, (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2006-01-12)
    BACKGROUND: Electronic evaluation portfolios may play a role in learning and evaluation in clinical settings and may complement other traditional evaluation methods (bedside evaluations, written exams and tutor-led evaluations). METHODS: 133 third-year medical students used the McGill Electronic Evaluation Portfolio (MEEP) during their one-month clerkship rotation in Geriatric Medicine between September 2002 and September 2003. Students were divided into two groups, one who received an introductory hands-on session about the electronic evaluation portfolio and one who did not. Students' marks in their portfolios were compared between both groups. Additionally, students self-evaluated their performance and received feedback using the electronic portfolio during their mandatory clerkship rotation. Students were surveyed immediately after the rotation and at the end of the clerkship year. Tutors' opinions about this method were surveyed once. Finally, the number of evaluations/month was quantified. In all surveys, Likert scales were used and were analyzed using Chi-square tests and t-tests to assess significant differences in the responses from surveyed subjects. RESULTS: The introductory session had a significant effect on students' portfolio marks as well as on their comfort using the system. Both tutors and students reported positive notions about the method. Remarkably, an average (+/- SD) of 520 (+/- 70) evaluations/month was recorded with 30 (+/- 5) evaluations per student/month. CONCLUSION: The MEEP showed a significant and positive effect on both students' self-evaluations and tutors' evaluations involving an important amount of self-reflection and feedback which may complement the more traditional evaluation methods.
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    Association between raised blood pressure and dysglycemia in Hong Kong Chinese
    Cheung, BMY ; Wat, NMS ; Tso, AWK ; Tam, S ; Thomas, GN ; Leung, GM ; Tse, HF ; Woo, J ; Janus, ED ; Lau, CP ; Lam, TH ; Lam, KSL (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2008-09-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between raised blood pressure and dysglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied the association between raised blood pressure and dysglycemia in 1,862 subjects in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study cohort. We determined the factors predicting the development of diabetes and hypertension in 1,496 subjects who did not have either condition at baseline. RESULTS: Diabetes and hypertension were both related to age, obesity indexes, blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Of subjects with diabetes, 58% had raised blood pressure. Of subjects with hypertension, 56% had dysglycemia. BMI and blood glucose 2 h after a 75-g oral glucose load were independent predictors of new-onset diabetes. Age, systolic blood pressure, and 2-h glucose were independent predictors of new-onset hypertension. BMI, systolic blood pressure, and 2-h glucose were independent predictors of the development of diabetes and hypertension together. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes and hypertension share common etiological factors. Patients with diabetes or hypertension should be screened and managed for the precursor of the other condition.
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    Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals
    Cooke, MB ; Rybalka, E ; Williams, AD ; Cribb, PJ ; Hayes, A (BMC, 2009-06-02)
    BACKGROUND: Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr) ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. METHODS: Fourteen untrained male participants (22.1 +/- 2.3 yrs, 173 +/- 7.7 cm, 76.2 +/- 9.3 kg) were randomly separated into 2 supplement groups: i) Cr and carbohydrate (Cr-CHO; n = 7); or ii) carbohydrate (CHO; n = 7). Participants consumed their supplement for a period of 5 days prior to, and 14 days following a resistance exercise session. Participants performed 4 sets of 10 eccentric-only repetitions at 120% of their maximum concentric 1-RM on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were assessed as relevant blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. RESULTS: The Cr-supplemented group had significantly greater isokinetic (10% higher) and isometric (21% higher) knee extension strength during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, plasma CK activity was significantly lower (by an average of 84%) after 48 hrs (P < 0.01), 72 hrs (P < 0.001), 96 hrs (P < 0.0001), and 7 days (P < 0.001) recovery in the Cr-supplemented group. CONCLUSION: The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.
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    Retinol-binding protein 4 and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome
    Hutchison, SK ; Harrison, C ; Stepto, N ; Meyer, C ; Teede, HJ (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2008-07-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an insulin-resistant state with insulin resistance being an established therapeutic target; however, measurement of insulin resistance remains challenging. We aimed to 1) determine serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels (purported to reflect insulin resistance) in women with PCOS and control subjects, 2) examine the relationship of RBP4 to conventional markers of insulin resistance, and 3) examine RBP4 changes with interventions modulating insulin resistance in overweight women with PCOS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: At baseline, 38 overweight women (BMI >27 kg/m(2)) with PCOS and 17 weight-matched control subjects were compared. Women with PCOS were then randomly assigned to 6 months of a higher-dose oral contraceptive pill (OCP) (35 microg ethinyl estradiol/2 mg cyproterone acetate) or metformin (1 g b.i.d.). Outcome measures were insulin resistance (total insulin area under the curve) on an oral glucose tolerance test, RBP4, and metabolic/inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Overweight women with PCOS were more insulin resistant than control subjects, yet RBP4 levels were not different in women with PCOS versus those in control subjects (35.4 +/- 4.3 vs. 28.9 +/- 3.1 microg/ml, P = 0.36). RBP4 correlated with cholesterol and triglycerides but not with insulin resistance. Metformin improved insulin resistance by 35%, whereas the OCP worsened insulin resistance by 33%. However, RBP4 increased nonsignificantly in both groups (43.7 +/- 6.3 vs. 42.6 +/- 5.5 microg/ml, P = 0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Overweight women with PCOS were more insulin resistant than control subjects, but this finding was not reflected by RBP4 levels. RBP4 correlated with lipid levels but not with insulin resistance markers. RBP4 levels did not change when insulin resistance was reduced by metformin or increased by the OCP. These data suggest that RBP4 is not a useful marker of insulin resistance in PCOS but may reflect other metabolic features of this condition.