Medicine (Western Health) - Research Publications

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    Health literacy and long-term health outcomes following myocardial infarction: protocol for a multicentre, prospective cohort study (ENHEARTEN study)
    Beauchamp, A ; Talevski, J ; Nicholls, SJ ; Wong Shee, A ; Martin, C ; Van Gaal, W ; Oqueli, E ; Ananthapavan, J ; Sharma, L ; O'Neil, A ; Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Jessup, RL (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-05-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Low health literacy is common in people with cardiovascular disease and may be one factor that affects an individual's ability to maintain secondary prevention health behaviours following myocardial infarction (MI). However, little is known about the association between health literacy and longer-term health outcomes in people with MI. The ENhancing HEAlth literacy in secondary pRevenTion of cardiac evENts (ENHEARTEN) study aims to examine the relationship between health literacy and a number of health outcomes (including healthcare costs) in a cohort of patients following their first MI. Findings may provide evidence for the significance of health literacy as a predictor of long-term cardiac outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: ENHEARTEN is a multicentre, prospective observational study in a convenience sample of adults (aged >18 years) with their first MI. A total of 450 patients will be recruited over 2 years across two metropolitan health services and one rural/regional health service in Victoria, Australia. The primary outcome of this study will be all-cause, unplanned hospital admissions within 6 months of index admission. Secondary outcomes include cardiac-related hospital admissions up to 24 months post-MI, emergency department presentations, health-related quality of life, mortality, cardiac rehabilitation attendance and healthcare costs. Health literacy will be observed as a predictor variable and will be determined using the 12-item version of the European Health Literacy Survey (HLS-Q12). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval for this study has been received from the relevant human research ethics committee (HREC) at each of the participating health services (lead site Monash Health HREC; approval number: RES-21-0000-242A) and Services Australia HREC (reference number: RMS1672). Informed written consent will be sought from all participants. Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and collated in reports for participating health services and participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12621001224819.
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    Why Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians fall and fracture: the codesigned Study of Indigenous Muscle and Bone Ageing (SIMBA) protocol
    Zengin, A ; Shore-Lorenti, C ; Sim, M ; Maple-Brown, L ; Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Lewis, JR ; Ockwell, J ; Walker, T ; Scott, D ; Ebeling, P (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-04-01)
    OBJECTIVES: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have a substantially greater fracture risk, where men are 50% and women are 26% more likely to experience a hip fracture compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Fall-related injuries in this population have also increased by 10%/year compared with 4.3%/year in non-Indigenous Australians. This study aims to determine why falls and fracture risk are higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. SETTING: All clinical assessments will be performed at one centre in Melbourne, Australia. At baseline, participants will have clinical assessments, including questionnaires, anthropometry, bone structure, body composition and physical performance tests. These assessments will be repeated at follow-up 1 and follow-up 2, with an interval of 12 months between each clinical visit. PARTICIPANTS: This codesigned prospective observational study aims to recruit a total of 298 adults who identify as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and reside within Victoria, Australia. Stratified sampling by age and sex will be used to ensure equitable distribution of men and women across four age-bands (35-44, 45-54, 55-64 and 65+ years). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome is within-individual yearly change in areal bone mineral density at the total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Within-individual change in cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density at the radius and tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography will be determined. Secondary outcomes include yearly differences in physical performance and body composition. ETHICAL APPROVAL: Ethics approval for this study has been granted by the Monash Health Human Research Ethics Committee (project number: RES-19-0000374A). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000161921.
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    Australian Indigenous model of mental healthcare based on transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioural therapy co-designed with the Indigenous community: protocol for a randomised controlled trial - CORRIGENDUM.
    Toombs, M ; Nasir, B ; Kisely, S ; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S ; Hides, L ; Gill, N ; Beccaria, G ; Brennan-Olsen, S ; Butten, K ; Nicholson, G (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2020-04-16)
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    The contribution of musculoskeletal factors to physical frailty: a cross-sectional study
    Tembo, MC ; Mohebbi, M ; Holloway-Kew, KL ; Gaston, J ; Sui, SX ; Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Williams, LJ ; Kotowicz, MA ; Pasco, JA (BMC, 2021-11-01)
    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal conditions and physical frailty have overlapping constructs. We aimed to quantify individual contributions of musculoskeletal factors to frailty. METHODS: Participants included 347 men and 360 women aged ≥60 yr (median ages; 70.8 (66.1-78.6) and 71.0 (65.2-77.5), respectively) from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Frailty was defined as ≥3, pre-frail 1-2, and robust 0, of the following; unintentional weight loss, weakness, low physical activity, exhaustion, and slowness. Measures were made of femoral neck BMD, appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2) and whole-body fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2) by DXA (Lunar), SOS, BUA and SI at the calcaneus (Lunar Achilles Insight) and handgrip strength by dynamometers. Binary and ordinal logistic regression models and AUROC curves were used to quantify the contribution of musculoskeletal parameters to frailty. Potential confounders included anthropometry, smoking, alcohol, prior fracture, FMI, SES and comorbidities. RESULTS: Overall, 54(15.6%) men and 62(17.2%) women were frail. In adjusted-binary logistic models, SI, ALMI and HGS were associated with frailty in men (OR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.53-1.01; OR=0.48, 0.34-0.68; and OR = 0.11, 0.06-0.22; respectively). Muscle measures (ALMI and HGS) contributed more to this association than did bone (SI) (AUROCs 0.77, 0.85 vs 0.71, respectively). In women, only HGS was associated with frailty in adjusted models (OR = 0.30 95%CI 0.20-0.45, AUROC = 0.83). In adjusted ordinal models, similar results were observed in men; for women, HGS and ALMI were associated with frailty (ordered OR = 0.30 95%CI 0.20-0.45; OR = 0.56, 0.40-0.80, respectively). CONCLUSION: Muscle deficits appeared to contribute more than bone deficits to frailty. This may have implications for identifying potential musculoskeletal targets for preventing or managing the progression of frailty.
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    The Role of Health Literacy in the Treatment of Osteoporosis
    Hosking, SM ; Buchbinder, R ; Pasco, JA ; Williams, LJ ; Brennan-Olsen, SL (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-10-01)
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    The Microbiome: A Biological Mechanism Underpinning the Social Gradient of Musculoskeletal Conditions?
    Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Pasco, JA ; Williams, LJ ; Hyde, NK ; Jacka, FN (WILEY, 2016-06-01)
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    Sarcopenia: a deserving recipient of an Australian ICD-10-AM code
    Zanker, J ; Scott, D ; Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Duque, G (WILEY, 2019-11-28)
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    Vitamin D during pregnancy and offspring body composition: a prospective cohort study
    Hyde, NK ; Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Wark, JD ; Hosking, SM ; Holloway-Kew, KL ; Pasco, JA (WILEY, 2018-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the association between gestational vitamin D status and offspring body composition during childhood is inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between maternal vitamin D and offspring lean and fat mass in the Vitamin D in Pregnancy birth cohort. METHODS: Subjects were mother-child pairs recruited from the Australian-based Vitamin D in Pregnancy cohort study. Mothers were recruited before 16 weeks' gestation and provided a blood sample at both recruitment and at 28-32 weeks' gestation. Serum vitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured by radioimmunoassay (Tyne and Wear, UK). Offspring lean and fat mass were quantified by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar Prodigy, Madison, WI, USA) at 11 years of age. RESULTS: Median maternal 25(OH)D levels were 55.9 (42.2-73.3) and 56.1 (43.6-73.9) at recruitment and 28-32 weeks' gestation, respectively. Maternal smoking was identified as an effect modifier in the association between maternal vitamin D status at recruitment and offspring body composition. In smokers, but not non-smokers, serum 25(OH)D status at recruitment was negatively associated with offspring fat mass percentage and positively associated with lean mass (both p < 0.05). There was no association with 25(OH)D status at 28-32 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vitamin D status in early pregnancy, in smokers, is associated with offspring body composition. These important findings warrant confirmation in larger studies and trials.
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    Associations between asthma status and radiologically confirmed fracture in children: A data-linkage study
    Degabriele, EL ; Holloway, KL ; Pasco, JA ; Hyde, NK ; Vuillermin, PJ ; Williams, LJ ; Brennan-Olsen, SL (WILEY, 2018-08-01)
    AIM: World-wide, approximately 14% of children have prevalent asthma. As most bone accrual occurs in childhood, and data suggest a detrimental role in bone from asthma and/or medications, we investigated whether asthma was associated with radiologically confirmed fractures in a large cohort of children. METHODS: Data from the Barwon Asthma Study (2005), a population-based, cross-sectional survey of all children attending 91 primary schools in the Barwon Statistical Division, were linked to the Geelong Osteoporosis Study Fracture Grid (2006-2007), a fracture register encompassing the Barwon Statistical Division (n = 16 438; 50.5% boys; aged 3.5-13.6 years). Asthma, ascertained from parent-reported symptoms using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, was categorised as: (i) recent wheeze; and number of (ii) recent wheezy episodes; (iii) doctor visits for wheeze symptoms; and (iv) doctor visits for asthma check-ups. Using logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex and adjusted for age and medication use, we determined whether asthma was associated with radiologically confirmed fractures. RESULTS: In total, 961 fractures were observed among 823 Barwon Asthma Study participants (5.9% of total sample; 61.1% boys). Recent wheeze and 1-3 recent wheezy episodes were associated with increased odds of fracture in boys (odds ratio (OR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.55; OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.77, respectively), but not girls (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78-1.37; OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.38-1.19). Results were independent of age, and sustained after adjustment for medication. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of age, asthma was associated with fracture for boys, but not girls. There is an imperative for strategies to promote bone health among children with asthma.
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    A community-led design for an Indigenous Mode of Mental Health Care for Indigenous people with depressive disorders
    Nasir, BF ; Brennan-Olsen, S ; Gill, NS ; Beccaria, G ; Kisely, S ; Hides, L ; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S ; Nicholson, G ; Toombs, M (WILEY, 2021-06-07)
    OBJECTIVE: To generate outcomes for the development of a culturally appropriate mental health treatment model for Indigenous Australians with depression. METHODS: Three focus group sessions and two semi-structured interviews were undertaken over six months across regional and rural locations in South West Queensland. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded using manual thematic analyses. Transcripts were thematically analysed and substantiated. Findings were presented back to participants for authenticity and verification. RESULTS: Three focus group discussions (n=24), and two interviews with Elders (n=2) were conducted, from which six themes were generated. The most common themes from the focus groups included Indigenous autonomy, wellbeing and identity. The three most common themes from the Elder interviews included culture retention and connection to Country, cultural spiritual beliefs embedded in the mental health system, and autonomy over funding decisions. CONCLUSIONS: A treatment model for depression must include concepts of Indigenous autonomy, identity and wellbeing. Further, treatment approaches need to incorporate Indigenous social and emotional wellbeing concepts alongside clinical treatment approaches. Implications for public health: Any systematic approach to address the social and cultural wellbeing of Indigenous peoples must have a community-led design and delivery.