Medicine (Western Health) - Research Publications

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    Glucocorticoid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Men Is Associated With Suppressed Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin
    Parker, L ; Lin, X ; Garnham, A ; McConell, G ; Stepto, NK ; Hare, DL ; Byrnes, E ; Ebeling, PR ; Seeman, E ; Brennan-Speranza, TC ; Levinger, I (WILEY, 2019-01-01)
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    Acute exercise alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 emission in response to hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in middle-aged obese men
    Trewin, AJ ; Levinger, I ; Parker, L ; Shaw, CS ; Serpiello, FR ; Anderson, MJ ; McConell, GK ; Hare, DL ; Stepto, NK ; Philp, A (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-11-21)
    Obesity, sedentary lifestyle and aging are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. Acute exercise increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle; however, whether mitochondria are involved in these processes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin stimulation at rest and after acute exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function (JO2) and hydrogen peroxide emission (JH2O2), and the associations with insulin sensitivity in obese, sedentary men. Nine men (means ± SD: 57 ± 6 years; BMI 33 ± 5 kg.m2) underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in two separate trials 1-3 weeks apart: one under resting conditions, and another 1 hour after high-intensity exercise (4x4 min cycling at 95% HRpeak). Muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, and pre/post clamp to measure JO2 with high-resolution respirometry and JH2O2 via Amplex UltraRed from permeabilized fibers. Post-exercise, both JO2 and JH2O2 during ADP stimulated state-3/OXPHOS respiration were lower compared to baseline (P<0.05), but not after subsequent insulin stimulation. JH2O2 was lower post-exercise and after subsequent insulin stimulation compared to insulin stimulation in the rest trial during succinate supported state-4/leak respiration (P<0.05). In contrast, JH2O2 increased during complex-I supported leak respiration with insulin after exercise compared with resting conditions (P<0.05). Resting insulin sensitivity and JH2O2 during complex-I leak respiration were positively correlated (r = 0.77, P<0.05). We conclude that in obese, older and sedentary men, acute exercise modifies skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 emission responses to hyperinsulinemia in a respiratory state-specific manner, which may have implications for metabolic diseases involving insulin resistance.
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    Assessing the Value of BMI and Aerobic Capacity as Surrogate Markers for the Severity of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Are Obese
    Smith, C ; ul Haq, MA ; Jerums, G ; Hanson, E ; Hayes, A ; Allen, JD ; Sbaraglia, M ; Selig, S ; Wong, C ; Hare, DL ; Levinger, I (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2016-05-12)
    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is one of the earliest signs for abnormal cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). It is important to explore the risk factors that will assist in identifying the severity of the LVDD in this population. We examined the influences of fitness and fatness on the level of left ventricular (LV) impairment in patients with T2DM. Twenty-five patients (age: 64.0 ± 2.5 years, body mass index [BMI] = 36.0 ± 1.5 kg/m(2), mean ± standard error of measurement) with T2DM and preserved systolic function, but impaired diastolic function, mitral valve (MV) E/e', participated in the study. LV function was assessed using a stress echocardiograph, aerobic power was assessed with a sign- and symptom-limited graded exercise test, and the fatness level was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and BMI. Patients in the higher 50% of BMI had higher lateral and septal MV E/e' (∼34% and ∼25%, respectively, both P < 0.001), compared to those in the lower 50% of BMI, with no difference in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (P > 0.05). In addition, a higher BMI correlated with a higher lateral (r = 0.62, P < 0.001) and septal (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) E/e'. There was no such relationship for VO2peak. BMI and VO2peak were not correlated with LV systolic function (ejection fraction). In individuals with T2DM and diastolic dysfunction, a higher BMI was associated with worsening diastolic function independent of their aerobic capacity. The data provide a simple and practical approach for clinicians to assist in the early identification and diagnostics of functional changes in the heart diastolic function in this population.
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    Effect of Exercise Training on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Diabetic Patients with Diastolic Dysfunction: Rationale and Design
    ul Haq, MA ; Wong, C ; Levinger, I ; Srivastava, PM ; Sbaraglia, M ; Toia, D ; Jerums, G ; Selig, S ; Hare, DL (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2014-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: This study will examine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance training on left ventricular remodeling in diabetic patients with diastolic dysfunction. This is the first randomized controlled trial to look for effects of combined strength training and aerobic exercise on myocardial function as well as other clinical, functional, or psychological parameters in diabetic patients with isolated diastolic dysfunction, and will provide important insights into the potential management strategies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, randomized controlled investigator initiated single center trial. Diabetic patients with LV diastolic dysfunction suitable for exercise training intervention will be randomized to three months of a supervised combination of aerobic and strength training exercises, or supervised light stretching (control arm). Pre and post intervention assessment will include stress echocardiography, peak aerobic power with 12-lead ECG, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength, the capacity to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), and questionnaires to assess self-perceived quality of life and symptoms of depression. The primary endpoint is to compare any change in tissue Doppler-derived LV systolic and early diastolic velocities. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current trial protocol has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Austin Health and the University of Melbourne, Melbourne. The study will be performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The investigator, regardless of the outcome, will publish the results of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: AUSTRALIAN NEW ZEALAND CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY: ACTRN12610000943044.
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    Acute High-Intensity Interval Exercise-Induced Redox Signaling Is Associated with Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Middle-Aged Men
    Parker, L ; Stepto, NK ; Shaw, CS ; Serpiello, PR ; Anderson, M ; Hare, DL ; Levinger, I (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016-09-16)
    Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK), and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods: Participants completed a 2 h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 min after HIIE (4 × 4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods), separated by 1-3 weeks. Results: Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160Ser588, were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SOD activity, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation (r = 0.63, r = 0.71, r = 0.72, r = 0.71; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion:These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 h after HIIE.
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    Single dose prednisolone alters endocrine and haematologic responses and exercise performance in men.
    Levinger, I ; Tacey, A ; Parker, L ; Yeap, BB ; Joseph, J ; Lim, EM ; Garnham, A ; Hare, DL ; Brennan-Speranza, T (BioScientifica, 2019-02-01)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of prednisolone on (A) high-intensity interval cycling performance and (B) post-exercise metabolic, hormonal and haematological responses. Nine young men participated in this double-blind, randomised, cross-over study. The participants completed exercise sessions (4 × 4 min cycling bouts at 90–95% of peak heart rate), 12 h after ingesting prednisolone (20 mg) or placebo. Work load was adjusted to maintain the same relative heart rate between the sessions. Exercise performance was measured as total work performed. Blood samples were taken at rest, immediately post exercise and up to 3 h post exercise. Prednisolone ingestion decreased total work performed by 5% (P < 0.05). Baseline blood glucose was elevated following prednisolone compared to placebo (P < 0.001). Three hours post exercise, blood glucose in the prednisolone trial was reduced to a level equivalent to the baseline concentration in the placebo trial (P > 0.05). Prednisolone suppressed the increase in blood lactate immediately post exercise (P < 0.05). Total white blood cell count was elevated at all time-points with prednisolone (P < 0.01). Androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin were elevated immediately after exercise, irrespective of prednisolone or placebo. In contrast, prednisolone significantly reduced the ratio of testosterone/luteinizing hormone (P < 0.01). Acute prednisolone treatment impairs high-intensity interval cycling performance and alters metabolic and haematological parameters in healthy young men. Exercise may be an effective tool to minimise the effect of prednisolone on blood glucose levels.