Medicine (Western Health) - Research Publications

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    Depression: An Important Comorbidity With Metabolic Syndrome in a General Population
    Dunbar, JA ; Reddy, P ; Davis-Lameloise, N ; Philpot, B ; Laatikainen, T ; Kilkkinen, A ; Bunker, SJ ; Best, JD ; Vartiainen, E ; Lo, SK ; Janus, ED (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2008-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: There is a recognized association among depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine in a sample representative of the general population whether depression, anxiety, and psychological distress are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Three cross-sectional surveys including clinical health measures were completed in rural regions of Australia during 2004-2006. A stratified random sample (n = 1,690, response rate 48%) of men and women aged 25-84 years was selected from the electoral roll. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and psychological distress by the Kessler 10 measure. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was associated with depression but not psychological distress or anxiety. Participants with the metabolic syndrome had higher scores for depression (n = 409, mean score 3.41, 95% CI 3.12-3.70) than individuals without the metabolic syndrome (n = 936, mean 2.95, 95% CI 2.76-3.13). This association was also present in 338 participants with the metabolic syndrome and without diabetes (mean score 3.37, 95% CI 3.06-3.68). Large waist circumference and low HDL cholesterol showed significant and independent associations with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show an association between metabolic syndrome and depression in a heterogeneous sample. The presence of depression in individuals with the metabolic syndrome has implications for clinical management.
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    Growth Environment and Sex Differences in Lipids, Body Shape and Diabetes Risk
    Schooling, CM ; Lam, TH ; Thomas, GN ; Cowling, BJ ; Heys, M ; Janus, ED ; Leung, GM ; Miranda, JJ (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2007-10-24)
    BACKGROUND: Sex differences in lipids and body shape, but not diabetes, increase at puberty. Hong Kong Chinese are mainly first or second generation migrants from China, who have shared an economically developed environment for years, but grew up in very different environments in Hong Kong or contemporaneously undeveloped Guangdong, China. We assessed if environment during growth had sex-specific associations with lipids and body shape, but not diabetes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used multivariable regression in a population-based cross-sectional study, undertaken from 1994 to 1996, of 2537 Hong Kong Chinese residents aged 25 to 74 years with clinical measurements of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) risk, including HDL-cholesterol, ApoB, diabetes and obesity. Waist-hip ratio was higher (mean difference 0.01, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.02) in men, who had grown up in an economically developed rather than undeveloped environment, as was apolipoprotein B (0.05 g/L, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.10), adjusted for age, socio-economic status and lifestyle. In contrast, the same comparison was associated in women with lower waist-hip ratio (-0.01, 95% CI -0.001 to -0.02) and higher HDL-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.0004 to 0.10). The associations in men and women were significantly different (p-values<0.001). There were no such differences for diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Growth in a developed environment with improved nutrition may promote higher sex-steroids at puberty producing an atherogenic lipid profile and male fat pattern in men but the opposite in women, with tracking of increased male IHD risk into adult life.
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    Immunocytochemical demonstration of PTHrP protein in neoplastic tissue of HTLV-1 positive human adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma: implications for the mechanism of hypercalcaemia.
    Moseley, JM ; Danks, JA ; Grill, V ; Lister, TA ; Horton, MA (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1991-10)
    The infiltrated tissues from seven West Indian patients with HTLV-1 positive adult T cell lymphoma/leukaemia (ATLL) have been analysed by immunocytochemical techniques for the presence of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a hormonal mediator of humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Six of the seven were hypercalcaemic at some stage of the course of their disease. Four of the six evaluable patients showed evidence of specific cellular and extracellular expression of PTHrP protein in neoplastic tissues. This finding suggests that PTHrP may be involved in the production of hypercalcaemia in at least some cases of T cell lymphoma - proof of a causal relationship however must await the demonstration of tissue release of PTHrP resulting in raised circulating hormone levels.
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    Once-yearly zoledronic acid in hip fracture prevention
    Demontiero, O ; Duque, G (DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2009-01-01)
    Osteoporosis is an escalating global problem. Hip fractures, the most catastrophic complication of osteoporosis, continue to cause significant mortality and morbidity despite increasing availability of effective preventative agents. Among these agents, oral bisphosphonates have been the first choice for the treatment and prevention of osteoporotic fractures. However, the use of oral bisphosphonates, especially in the older population, has been limited by their side effects and method of administration thus compromising their persistent use. The resultant low adherence by patients has undermined their full potential and has been associated with an increase in the incidence of fragility fractures. Recently, annual intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL) has been approved for osteoporosis. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated ZOL to be safe, have good tolerability and produce significant effect on bone mass and microarchitecture. Adherence has also been shown to be better with ZOL. Furthermore two large trials firmly demonstrated significant anti-osteoporotic effect (approximately 59% relative risk reduction of hip fractures) and mortality benefit (28% reduction in mortality) of ZOL in older persons with recent hip fractures. In this review, we report the current evidence on the use of ZOL for the prevention of hip fractures in the elderly. We also report the pharmacological characteristics and the advantages and disadvantages of ZOL in this particular group.
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    A phase II study in advanced breast cancer: ZD1694 ('Tomudex') a novel direct and specific thymidylate synthase inhibitor
    Smith, I ; Jones, A ; Spielmann, M ; Namer, M ; Green, MD ; Bonneterre, J ; Wander, HE ; Hatschek, T ; Wilking, N ; Zalcberg, J ; Spiers, J ; Seymour, L (STOCKTON PRESS, 1996-08-01)
    ZD1694 ('Tomudex'), a novel, direct and specific thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor, was developed in a collaborative research programme between Zeneca Pharmaceuticals and the Institute of Cancer Research (UK) and entered clinical trials in 1991; phase II studies began in 1992, using 3.0 mg m-2 every 3 weeks as a short 15 min infusion. Forty-six patients entered a phase II study of ZD1694 in advanced breast cancer. A total of 74% of patients had received prior systemic therapy (either as adjuvant cytotoxic or hormonal therapy or hormone therapy for advanced disease); 39% had received prior adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy. All patients had measurable disease and 50% had liver metastases. In all 43 patients were evaluable for response. Of these patients 26% achieved complete (CR) or partial response (PR) (95% Cl 14-42%). A response rate of 44% was seen in liver metastases. Two patients achieved CR of 265 and 301 days' duration respectively, one in locoregional disease, and one in liver metastases. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were nausea and vomiting (11%), diarrhoea (11%) and leucopenia (20%). Grade 3/4, self-limited and reversible increases in transaminases were seen in 22% of patients. ZD1694 has useful single agent activity in patients with hormone-refractory advanced breast cancer, comparable with that reported for other anti-metabolites, with acceptable tolerability.
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    Risk Factors forMycobacterium ulceransInfection, Southeastern Australia
    Quek, TYJ ; Athan, E ; Henry, MJ ; Pasco, JA ; Redden-Hoare, J ; Hughes, A ; Johnson, PDR (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2007-11)
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    The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian populations is only partly explained by season and latitude
    van der Mei, IAF ; Ponsonby, A-L ; Engelsen, O ; Pasco, JA ; McGrath, JJ ; Eyles, DW ; Blizzard, L ; Dwyer, T ; Lucas, R ; Jones, G (US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE, 2007-08-01)
    BACKGROUND: Inadequate sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake can result in vitamin D insufficiency. However, limited data are available on actual vitamin D status and predictors in healthy individuals in different regions and by season. METHODS: We compared vitamin D status [25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D] in people < 60 years of age using data from cross-sectional studies of three regions across Australia: southeast Queensland (27 degrees S; 167 females and 211 males), Geelong region (38 degrees S; 561 females), and Tasmania (43 degrees S; 432 females and 298 males). RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (
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    Identification and characterisation of a platelet GPIb/V/IX-like complex on human breast cancers: implications for the metastatic process.
    Suter, CM ; Hogg, PJ ; Price, JT ; Chong, BH ; Ward, RL (Wiley, 2001-10)
    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib /V/IX receptor complex is an important adhesion molecule, originally thought to be unique to the megakaryocytic lineage. Recent evidence now indicates that GPIb /V/IX may be more widely expressed. In this study we report the presence of all subunits of the complex on four breast cancer cell lines, and 51 / 80 primary breast tumours. The surface expression of GPIb /V/IX was confirmed by flow cytometry, and by immunoprecipitation of biotin surface-labelled tumour cells. Western blotting of cell lysates under reducing conditions revealed that tumour cell-GPIb alpha had a relative molecular weight of 95 kDa as compared to 135 kDa on platelets. Despite the discrepant protein size, molecular analyses on the tumour cell-GPIb alpha subunit using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed 100% sequence homology to platelet GPIb alpha. Tumour cell-GPIb /V/IX was capable of binding human von Willebrand factor (vWf), and this binding caused aggregation of tumour cells in suspension. Tumour cells bound to immobilised vWf in the presence of EDTA and demonstrated prominent filapodial extensions indicative of cytoskeletal reorganisation. Furthermore, in a modified Boyden chamber assay, prior exposure to vWf or a GPIb alpha monoclonal antibody, AK2, enhanced cell migration. The presence of a functional GPIb /V/IX-like complex in tumour cells suggests that this complex may participate in the process of haematogenous breast cancer metastasis.
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    The association of levels of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in rural Australian adults
    Vaughan, C ; Schoo, A ; Janus, ED ; Philpot, B ; Davis-Lameloise, N ; Lo, SK ; Laatikainen, T ; Vartiainen, E ; Dunbar, JA (BMC, 2009-07-31)
    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) reduces risk factors related to metabolic syndrome. Rurality influences the way people incorporate physical activity into daily life. The aim of this study is to determine the association of PA level with metabolic syndrome in a rural Australian population. The influence of adiposity on these associations is also investigated. METHODS: Three cross-sectional population health surveys were conducted in south-east Australia during 2004-2006 using a random population sample (n = 1563, participation rate 49%) aged 25-74 years. PA was assessed via a self-administered questionnaire, and components of the metabolic syndrome via anthropometric measurements taken by specially trained nurses and laboratory tests. RESULTS: Approximately one-fifth of participants were inactive in leisure-time and over one-third had metabolic syndrome (men 39%, women 33%; p = 0.022). There was an inverse association between level of PA and metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). Men who were inactive in leisure-time were more than twice as likely and women more than three times as likely to have metabolic syndrome compared with those having high PA. Body mass index (BMI) is a mediating factor in the association between level of PA and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Some PA is better than none if adults, particularly women, are to reduce their risk of metabolic syndrome and associated vascular diseases. Specialised interventions that take rurality into consideration are recommended for adults who are inactive.
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    Learning while evaluating: the use of an electronic evaluation portfolio in a geriatric medicine clerkship.
    Duque, G ; Finkelstein, A ; Roberts, A ; Tabatabai, D ; Gold, SL ; Winer, LR ; Members of the Division of Geriatric Medicine, McGill University, (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2006-01-12)
    BACKGROUND: Electronic evaluation portfolios may play a role in learning and evaluation in clinical settings and may complement other traditional evaluation methods (bedside evaluations, written exams and tutor-led evaluations). METHODS: 133 third-year medical students used the McGill Electronic Evaluation Portfolio (MEEP) during their one-month clerkship rotation in Geriatric Medicine between September 2002 and September 2003. Students were divided into two groups, one who received an introductory hands-on session about the electronic evaluation portfolio and one who did not. Students' marks in their portfolios were compared between both groups. Additionally, students self-evaluated their performance and received feedback using the electronic portfolio during their mandatory clerkship rotation. Students were surveyed immediately after the rotation and at the end of the clerkship year. Tutors' opinions about this method were surveyed once. Finally, the number of evaluations/month was quantified. In all surveys, Likert scales were used and were analyzed using Chi-square tests and t-tests to assess significant differences in the responses from surveyed subjects. RESULTS: The introductory session had a significant effect on students' portfolio marks as well as on their comfort using the system. Both tutors and students reported positive notions about the method. Remarkably, an average (+/- SD) of 520 (+/- 70) evaluations/month was recorded with 30 (+/- 5) evaluations per student/month. CONCLUSION: The MEEP showed a significant and positive effect on both students' self-evaluations and tutors' evaluations involving an important amount of self-reflection and feedback which may complement the more traditional evaluation methods.