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ItemGrowth Environment and Sex Differences in Lipids, Body Shape and Diabetes RiskSchooling, CM ; Lam, TH ; Thomas, GN ; Cowling, BJ ; Heys, M ; Janus, ED ; Leung, GM ; Miranda, JJ (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2007-10-24)BACKGROUND: Sex differences in lipids and body shape, but not diabetes, increase at puberty. Hong Kong Chinese are mainly first or second generation migrants from China, who have shared an economically developed environment for years, but grew up in very different environments in Hong Kong or contemporaneously undeveloped Guangdong, China. We assessed if environment during growth had sex-specific associations with lipids and body shape, but not diabetes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used multivariable regression in a population-based cross-sectional study, undertaken from 1994 to 1996, of 2537 Hong Kong Chinese residents aged 25 to 74 years with clinical measurements of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) risk, including HDL-cholesterol, ApoB, diabetes and obesity. Waist-hip ratio was higher (mean difference 0.01, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.02) in men, who had grown up in an economically developed rather than undeveloped environment, as was apolipoprotein B (0.05 g/L, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.10), adjusted for age, socio-economic status and lifestyle. In contrast, the same comparison was associated in women with lower waist-hip ratio (-0.01, 95% CI -0.001 to -0.02) and higher HDL-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.0004 to 0.10). The associations in men and women were significantly different (p-values<0.001). There were no such differences for diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Growth in a developed environment with improved nutrition may promote higher sex-steroids at puberty producing an atherogenic lipid profile and male fat pattern in men but the opposite in women, with tracking of increased male IHD risk into adult life.
ItemThe association of levels of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in rural Australian adultsVaughan, C ; Schoo, A ; Janus, ED ; Philpot, B ; Davis-Lameloise, N ; Lo, SK ; Laatikainen, T ; Vartiainen, E ; Dunbar, JA (BMC, 2009-07-31)BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) reduces risk factors related to metabolic syndrome. Rurality influences the way people incorporate physical activity into daily life. The aim of this study is to determine the association of PA level with metabolic syndrome in a rural Australian population. The influence of adiposity on these associations is also investigated. METHODS: Three cross-sectional population health surveys were conducted in south-east Australia during 2004-2006 using a random population sample (n = 1563, participation rate 49%) aged 25-74 years. PA was assessed via a self-administered questionnaire, and components of the metabolic syndrome via anthropometric measurements taken by specially trained nurses and laboratory tests. RESULTS: Approximately one-fifth of participants were inactive in leisure-time and over one-third had metabolic syndrome (men 39%, women 33%; p = 0.022). There was an inverse association between level of PA and metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). Men who were inactive in leisure-time were more than twice as likely and women more than three times as likely to have metabolic syndrome compared with those having high PA. Body mass index (BMI) is a mediating factor in the association between level of PA and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Some PA is better than none if adults, particularly women, are to reduce their risk of metabolic syndrome and associated vascular diseases. Specialised interventions that take rurality into consideration are recommended for adults who are inactive.
ItemAssociation between raised blood pressure and dysglycemia in Hong Kong ChineseCheung, BMY ; Wat, NMS ; Tso, AWK ; Tam, S ; Thomas, GN ; Leung, GM ; Tse, HF ; Woo, J ; Janus, ED ; Lau, CP ; Lam, TH ; Lam, KSL (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2008-09-01)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between raised blood pressure and dysglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied the association between raised blood pressure and dysglycemia in 1,862 subjects in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study cohort. We determined the factors predicting the development of diabetes and hypertension in 1,496 subjects who did not have either condition at baseline. RESULTS: Diabetes and hypertension were both related to age, obesity indexes, blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Of subjects with diabetes, 58% had raised blood pressure. Of subjects with hypertension, 56% had dysglycemia. BMI and blood glucose 2 h after a 75-g oral glucose load were independent predictors of new-onset diabetes. Age, systolic blood pressure, and 2-h glucose were independent predictors of new-onset hypertension. BMI, systolic blood pressure, and 2-h glucose were independent predictors of the development of diabetes and hypertension together. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes and hypertension share common etiological factors. Patients with diabetes or hypertension should be screened and managed for the precursor of the other condition.