Paediatrics (RCH) - Theses

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    Cardiovascular associations of HIV infection in children
    Idris, Nikmah Salamia ( 2015)
    Vertically-acquired HIV infection is a devastating disease in childhood that may affect any organ, including the cardiovascular system. With increased survival of HIV infected children due to antiretroviral (ART) treatment availability, chronic cardiovascular problems become a confronting challenge, not only because HIV infection may cause cardiac problems readily manifesting in childhood but also because it potentially increases future cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. This thesis explores various possible cardiovascular effects of HIV infection in children, particularly the differential effects of ART-naïve compared to ART-exposed HIV infection on left ventricular (LV) remodelling, pulmonary hypertension, and arterial elasticity. We conducted a cross-sectional study enrolling 56 ART-naïve, 59 ART-exposed HIV infected, and 51 healthy children in Jakarta, Indonesia and performed cardiac/vascular ultrasound, and blood tests for biomarkers. There were marked differences in the cardiovascular parameters between the two groups. We found that ART-naïve HIV infection was associated with LV dilation while the ART-exposed seemed to cause concentric hypertrophic remodelling. ART-exposed HIV infected children who showed evidence of higher pulmonary artery pressure than healthy children, whereas the ART-naïve children had reduced right ventricular function. For arterial elasticity, the ART-naïve had higher strain and lower elastic modulus, but thicker intima-media thickness, whereas the ART-exposed had similar vascular properties as healthy children. In conclusion, HIV infection in children have significant impacts on childhood cardiovascular system with particular differential effects between ART-naïve and ART exposed HIV infection. Routine cardiovascular surveillance is needed for children with HIV infection.