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ItemProximal femoral osteotomy in children and adolescents with cerebral palsyZhou, Leena ( 2018)Background Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability affecting children in developed countries. Approximately one third of children with CP may develop hip displacement. Non-ambulant children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV and V are at highest risk. Without early detection through surveillance programs, hip displacement can progress to hip dislocation, which is frequently painful and negatively impacts health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Injections of Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) have no role, and soft tissue surgery has a limited role in preventing hip displacement in non-ambulant children with CP. Bony hip reconstruction surgery such as a proximal femoral osteotomy (PFO) is effective in stabilising the hip and HRQoL. PFOs include Femoral Derotation Osteotomies (FDO) which aim to improve the gait of an ambulant child (GMFCS I-III), and Varus Derotation Osteotomies (VDRO) which aim to contain the hips in non-ambulant children (GMFCS IV-V). However, PFOs can carry high risks, especially in children with medical co-morbidities such as respiratory disease, nutritional deficiencies, hypertonia and osteopenia. Aim This thesis involved a series of three studies, which aimed to expand our knowledge of the trainee learning curve, outcomes and adverse events relating to PFO in children and adolescents with CP. Method and Results A new implant combining locking and cannulated technology (Locking Cannulated Blade Plate, LCBP) was recently developed for use in PFO. A pilot study was performed on the first 25 patients who had surgery with the LCBP, at the Royal Children’s Hospital (RCH), Melbourne. This study established safety for use in children as young as three, with weights as low as eleven kilograms. A further prospective, parallel cohort study of 90 consecutive children with CP was conducted to compare the LCBP against with existing non-cannulated, non-locking implant (Angled Blade Plate, ABP). Technical and radiological outcomes of surgery were similar between implants. However, the surgical technique was reported by trainees to be easier when using the LCBP, with less technical errors. Approximately 60 percent of the children experienced minor adverse events including: constipation, inadequate pain control, and respiratory compromise. However, a CP specific tool was not available to classify the severity of events. Study three was performed to clarify the Modified Clavien-Dindo (MCD) system for lower limb surgery in children with CP and test its’ reliability for classifying adverse events. Very good reliability was demonstrated amongst members within a multidisciplinary team. Conclusion Novel findings from these studies may help improve the safety and efficacy of the management of hip displacement in children with CP. Further research should address the long-term outcomes of PFO in children with CP, evaluate the validity of the MCD for children in CP and determine if the MCD can be embedded in the electronic medical records (EMR) as a routine tool for audit and clinical research.
ItemChildhood pneumonia and hypoxaemia in an urban diarrhoeal hospital, Dhaka, BangladeshChisti, Mohammod Jobayer ( 2010)The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate clinical and socio-demographic predictors of pneumonia, deaths from pneumonia, and hypoxaemia in children. All under-five children who were admitted to the special care ward of ICDDR,B during September 2007-December 2007 were enrolled. Children sleeping in a bare bed and those having parents/caregivers with poor knowledge were at risk of pneumonia. Children with severe malnutrition, hypoxaemia, or severe sepsis were at higher risk of death. Chest wall-indrawing was the best predictor of hypoxaemia.