Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
ItemThe epidemiology and risk factors of anaphylaxis and food-induced anaphylaxis worldwideWang, Yichao ( 2019)Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. There are increasing reports from individual countries and regions on anaphylaxis prevalence or incidence; however, there has been no systematic summary of the worldwide evidence among the paediatric population. An increasing rate of hospital admissions for food-induced anaphylaxis was observed in Australia from 1993 to 2012, especially among young children. Although rising rates of anaphylaxis have also been reported in other western countries, little is known about the time trends in Asian regions. Time trends of adrenaline auto-injectors (AAI) prescription is a good supplement surrogate for the time trends of anaphylaxis risk in the community. Some studies reported time trends of AAI prescription internationally, such as USA, UK and Canada; however, there is little information on the time trends of AAI prescription or dispensing in Australia in recent years. Previous international studies have reported that ethnicity is associated with the risk of anaphylaxis. Food allergy was found to be more common in children born in Australia with Asian parents than children born in Australia with Caucasian parents. However, it is not known whether ethnicity is also a risk factor for the development of anaphylaxis and food-induced anaphylaxis in Australia. Food allergy is an important cause of anaphylaxis. People with food allergy have a high risk of anaphylaxis, but not all of them will have an anaphylactic reaction. It is hence crucial to know the risk factors of having anaphylactic reactions in the food allergic population. Few studies have examined risk factors for food-induced anaphylaxis in food-allergic children. The characteristics of children with food allergy who are more likely to experience anaphylaxis are unknown. Therefore, this thesis aims to describe the worldwide incidence and prevalence of anaphylaxis and identify risk factors for anaphylaxis and food-induced anaphylaxis in both the general population and the food-allergic population. Firstly, I conducted a systematic review to describe the incidence and prevalence of anaphylaxis in children worldwide. I found a high heterogeneity between studies which limited the interpretation of an overall combined incidence and prevalence. I found increasing time trends of all-cause anaphylaxis and food-induced anaphylaxis in children from included studies and studies in developing areas were underrepresented. By using hospital admission data for anaphylaxis from the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong, I reported increasing time trends of both all-cause anaphylaxis and food-induced anaphylaxis in the paediatric population in Hong Kong between 2001 and 2015. By analysing AAI dispensing data from the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) database, I found an increasing incidence rate of patients with AAI in Australia from 2005 to 2014. Different trends were reported by sex, age and state. I found a shift towards more AAI prescriptions being provided by general practitioners (GPs) rather than specialists in most regions in Australia. By using the data from the School Entrant Health Questionnaire in Victoria, Australia, I investigated the risk factors of anaphylaxis in the general population. I found an association between Asian ethnicity and anaphylaxis risk in children living in Australia and identified the high-risk group (Australian-born children with Asian-born mothers) for anaphylaxis. Lastly, I used data from the HealthNuts study to explore the frequency and risk factors of anaphylaxis in food allergic children from a community setting. I found a high frequency of experiencing anaphylactic reactions (11.5%) in the preceding 12 months in children with food allergy. In summary, the results presented in this thesis have provided further knowledge on the epidemiology of anaphylaxis and food-induced anaphylaxis in the general population and identified important predictors of anaphylaxis in the general population and the food allergic population. The identification of these essential predictors has important implications for the management of anaphylaxis and will improve our understanding of the development of anaphylaxis.