Melbourne Students & Learning - Research Publications

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    Equity of access to primary healthcare for vulnerable populations: the IMPACT international online survey of innovations
    Richard, L ; Furler, J ; Densley, K ; Haggerty, J ; Russell, G ; Levesque, J-F ; Gunn, J (BMC, 2016-04-12)
    BACKGROUND: Improving access to primary healthcare (PHC) for vulnerable populations is important for achieving health equity, yet this remains challenging. Evidence of effective interventions is rather limited and fragmented. We need to identify innovative ways to improve access to PHC for vulnerable populations, and to clarify which elements of health systems, organisations or services (supply-side dimensions of access) and abilities of patients or populations (demand-side dimensions of access) need to be strengthened to achieve transformative change. The work reported here was conducted as part of IMPACT (Innovative Models Promoting Access-to-Care Transformation), a 5-year Canadian-Australian research program aiming to identify, implement and trial best practice interventions to improve access to PHC for vulnerable populations. We undertook an environmental scan as a broad screening approach to identify the breadth of current innovations from the field. METHODS: We distributed a brief online survey to an international audience of PHC researchers, practitioners, policy makers and stakeholders using a combined email and social media approach. Respondents were invited to describe a program, service, approach or model of care that they considered innovative in helping vulnerable populations to get access to PHC. We used descriptive statistics to characterise the innovations and conducted a qualitative framework analysis to further examine the text describing each innovation. RESULTS: Seven hundred forty-four responses were recorded over a 6-week period. 240 unique examples of innovations originating from 14 countries were described, the majority from Canada and Australia. Most interventions targeted a diversity of population groups, were government funded and delivered in a community health, General Practice or outreach clinic setting. Interventions were mainly focused on the health sector and directed at organisational and/or system level determinants of access (supply-side). Few innovations were developed to enhance patients' or populations' abilities to access services (demand-side), and rarely did initiatives target both supply- and demand-side determinants of access. CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of innovations improving access to PHC were identified. The access framework was useful in uncovering the disparity between supply- and demand-side dimensions and pinpointing areas which could benefit from further attention to close the equity gap for vulnerable populations in accessing PHC services that correspond to their needs.
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    Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a web-based healthy relationship tool and safety decision aid for women experiencing domestic violence (I-DECIDE)
    Hegarty, K ; TARZIA, L ; Murray, E ; Valpied, J ; Humphreys, C ; Taft, A ; Gold, L ; Glass, N (BioMed Central, 2015-08-01)
    Background: Domestic violence is a serious problem affecting the health and wellbeing of women globally. Interventions in health care settings have primarily focused on screening and referral, however, women often may not disclose abuse to health practitioners. The internet offers a confidential space in which women can assess the health of their relationships and make a plan for safety and wellbeing for themselves and their children. This randomised controlled trial is testing the effectiveness of a web-based healthy relationship tool and safety decision aid (I-DECIDE). Based broadly on the IRIS trial in the United States, it has been adapted for the Australian context where it is conducted entirely online and uses the Psychosocial Readiness Model as the basis for the intervention. Methods/design: In this two arm, pragmatic randomised controlled trial, women who have experienced abuse or fear of a partner in the previous 6 months will be computer randomised to receive either the I-DECIDE website or a comparator website (basic relationship and safety advice). The intervention includes self-directed reflection exercises on their relationship, danger level, priority setting, and results in an individualised, tailored action plan. Primary self-reported outcomes are: self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale) immediately after completion, 6 and 12 months post-baseline; and depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Revised, 6 and 12 months post-baseline). Secondary outcomes include mean number of helpful actions for safety and wellbeing, mean level of fear of partner and cost-effectiveness. Discussion: This fully-automated trial will evaluate a web-based self-information, self-reflection and self-management tool for domestic violence. We hypothesise that the improvement in self-efficacy and mental health will be mediated by increased perceived support and awareness encouraging positive change. If shown to be effective, I-DECIDE could be easily incorporated into the community sector and health care settings, providing an alternative to formal services for women not ready or able to acknowledge abuse and access specialised services.
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    Pathways, parallels and pitfalls: the Scholarly Web, the ESRC and Linked Open Data
    Lewis, A ; Neish, P (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016-08-01)
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    Cryo-EM structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome bound to the anti-protozoan drug emetine
    Wong, W ; Bai, X-C ; Brown, A ; Fernandez, IS ; Hanssen, E ; Condron, M ; Tan, YH ; Baum, J ; Scheres, SHW (ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2014-06-09)
    Malaria inflicts an enormous burden on global human health. The emergence of parasite resistance to front-line drugs has prompted a renewed focus on the repositioning of clinically approved drugs as potential anti-malarial therapies. Antibiotics that inhibit protein translation are promising candidates for repositioning. We have solved the cryo-EM structure of the cytoplasmic ribosome from the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in complex with emetine at 3.2 Å resolution. Emetine is an anti-protozoan drug used in the treatment of ameobiasis that also displays potent anti-malarial activity. Emetine interacts with the E-site of the ribosomal small subunit and shares a similar binding site with the antibiotic pactamycin, thereby delivering its therapeutic effect by blocking mRNA/tRNA translocation. As the first cryo-EM structure that visualizes an antibiotic bound to any ribosome at atomic resolution, this establishes cryo-EM as a powerful tool for screening and guiding the design of drugs that target parasite translation machinery.
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    A collection of Australian Drosophila datasets on climate adaptation and species distributions
    Hangartner, SB ; Hoffmann, AA ; Smith, A ; Griffin, PC (NATURE RESEARCH, 2015-01-01)
    The Australian Drosophila Ecology and Evolution Resource (ADEER) collates Australian datasets on drosophilid flies, which are aimed at investigating questions around climate adaptation, species distribution limits and population genetics. Australian drosophilid species are diverse in climatic tolerance, geographic distribution and behaviour. Many species are restricted to the tropics, a few are temperate specialists, and some have broad distributions across climatic regions. Whereas some species show adaptability to climate changes through genetic and plastic changes, other species have limited adaptive capacity. This knowledge has been used to identify traits and genetic polymorphisms involved in climate change adaptation and build predictive models of responses to climate change. ADEER brings together 103 datasets from 39 studies published between 1982-2013 in a single online resource. All datasets can be downloaded freely in full, along with maps and other visualisations. These historical datasets are preserved for future studies, which will be especially useful for assessing climate-related changes over time.
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    Explainer: Open access vs traditional academic journal publishers
    CRAMOND, W (The Conversation Media Group, 2011-07-27)
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    Evaluation of chromosome 6p22 as a breast cancer risk modifier locus in a follow-up study of BRCA2 mutation carriers
    Stevens, KN ; Wang, X ; Fredericksen, Z ; Pankratz, VS ; Greene, MH ; Andrulis, IL ; Thomassen, M ; Caligo, M ; Nathanson, KL ; Jakubowska, A ; Osorio, A ; Hamann, U ; Godwin, AK ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Southey, M ; Buys, SS ; Singer, CF ; Hansen, TVO ; Arason, A ; Offit, K ; Piedmonte, M ; Montagna, M ; Imyanitov, E ; Tihomirova, L ; Sucheston, L ; Beattie, M ; Neuhausen, SL ; Szabo, CI ; Simard, J ; Spurdle, AB ; Healey, S ; Chen, X ; Rebbeck, TR ; Easton, DF ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Antoniou, AC ; Couch, FJ (SPRINGER, 2012-11-01)
    Several common germline variants identified through genome-wide association studies of breast cancer risk in the general population have recently been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. When combined, these variants can identify marked differences in the absolute risk of developing breast cancer for mutation carriers, suggesting that additional modifier loci may further enhance individual risk assessment for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recently, a common variant on 6p22 (rs9393597) was found to be associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.55, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.92, p = 6.0 × 10(-5)]. This observation was based on data from GWAS studies in which, despite statistical correction for multiple comparisons, the possibility of false discovery remains a concern. Here, we report on an analysis of this variant in an additional 6,165 BRCA1 and 3,900 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). In this replication analysis, rs9393597 was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95 % CI 0.96-1.24, p = 0.18). No association with ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers or with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers was observed. This follow-up study suggests that, contrary to our initial report, this variant is not associated with breast cancer risk among individuals with germline BRCA2 mutations.
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    11q13 is a susceptibility locus for hormone receptor positive breast cancer
    Lambrechts, D ; Truong, T ; Justenhoven, C ; Humphreys, MK ; Wang, J ; Hopper, JL ; Dite, GS ; Apicella, C ; Southey, MC ; Schmidt, MK ; Broeks, A ; Cornelissen, S ; van Hien, R ; Sawyer, E ; Tomlinson, I ; Kerin, M ; Miller, N ; Milne, RL ; Pilar Zamora, M ; Arias Perez, JI ; Benitez, J ; Hamann, U ; Ko, Y-D ; Bruening, T ; Chang-Claude, J ; Eilber, U ; Hein, R ; Nickels, S ; Flesch-Janys, D ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; John, EM ; Miron, A ; Winqvist, R ; Pylkas, K ; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A ; Grip, M ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Beesley, J ; Chen, X ; Menegaux, F ; Cordina-Duverger, E ; Shen, C-Y ; Yu, J-C ; Wu, P-E ; Hou, M-F ; Andrulis, IL ; Selander, T ; Glendon, G ; Mulligan, AM ; Anton-Culver, H ; Ziogas, A ; Muir, KR ; Lophatananon, A ; Rattanamongkongul, S ; Puttawibul, P ; Jones, M ; Orr, N ; Ashworth, A ; Swerdlow, A ; Severi, G ; Baglietto, L ; Giles, G ; Southey, M ; Marme, F ; Schneeweiss, A ; Sohn, C ; Burwinkel, B ; Yesilyurt, BT ; Neven, P ; Paridaens, R ; Wildiers, H ; Brenner, H ; Mueller, H ; Arndt, V ; Stegmaier, C ; Meindl, A ; Schott, S ; Bartram, CR ; Schmutzler, RK ; Cox, A ; Brock, IW ; Elliott, G ; Cross, SS ; Fasching, PA ; Schulz-Wendtland, R ; Ekici, AB ; Beckmann, MW ; Fletcher, O ; Johnson, N ; Silva, IDS ; Peto, J ; Nevanlinna, H ; Muranen, TA ; Aittomaki, K ; Blomqvist, C ; Doerk, T ; Schuermann, P ; Bremer, M ; Hillemanns, P ; Bogdanova, NV ; Antonenkova, NN ; Rogov, YI ; Karstens, JH ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Bermisheva, M ; Prokofieva, D ; Gancev, S ; Jakubowska, A ; Lubinski, J ; Jaworska, K ; Durda, K ; Nordestgaard, BG ; Bojesen, SE ; Lanng, C ; Mannermaa, A ; Kataja, V ; Kosma, V-M ; Hartikainen, JM ; Radice, P ; Peterlongo, P ; Manoukian, S ; Bernard, L ; Couch, FJ ; Olson, JE ; Wang, X ; Fredericksen, Z ; Alnaes, GG ; Kristensen, V ; Borresen-Dale, A-L ; Devilee, P ; Tollenaar, RAEM ; Seynaeve, CM ; Hooning, MJ ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Chanock, SJ ; Lissowska, J ; Sherman, ME ; Hall, P ; Liu, J ; Czene, K ; Kang, D ; Yoo, K-Y ; Noh, D-Y ; Lindblom, A ; Margolin, S ; Dunning, AM ; Pharoah, PDP ; Easton, DF ; Guenel, P ; Brauch, H (WILEY, 2012-07-01)
    A recent two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified five novel breast cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 9, 10, and 11. To provide more reliable estimates of the relative risk associated with these loci and investigate possible heterogeneity by subtype of breast cancer, we genotyped the variants rs2380205, rs1011970, rs704010, rs614367, and rs10995190 in 39 studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), involving 49,608 cases and 48,772 controls of predominantly European ancestry. Four of the variants showed clear evidence of association (P ≤ 3 × 10(-9) ) and weak evidence was observed for rs2380205 (P = 0.06). The strongest evidence was obtained for rs614367, located on 11q13 (per-allele odds ratio 1.21, P = 4 × 10(-39) ). The association for rs614367 was specific to estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease and strongest for ER plus progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer, whereas the associations for the other three loci did not differ by tumor subtype.