Agriculture and Food Systems - Theses

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    Studies on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Woll.) in Victoria
    Brown, R. H (1940-) ( 1973)
    Ten populations of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenge Will.) from the Victorian Mallee and Wimmera districts, were tested for their variation in pathogenicity, using a selected range of cereal species and cultivars as.indicators. The tests were made in a glasshouse between 1967 and 1969. Of the oats used, Avena sterilis and A.strigosa were resistant, but all other cultivars and species were susceptible to each of the populations. Two barley cultivars, Morocco, and Marocaine 079 were resistant to all populations, but all other barleys used were susceptible. None of the cultivars of wheat was resistant; the spring wheat cv. Loris was very susceptible. Rye cv. South Australian was resistant to all populations. The results indicate that a single biotype of H. avenge is present in Victoria. It appears to be more "aggressive" than any of the biotypes known in Europe. Two hundred and forty cereal species and cultivars (wheat, barley, oats, rye and Triticales) were field . tested for resistance to H. avenge at Sea Lake in the Victorian Mallee between 1966 and 1969. All wheats tested were susceptible to very susceptible, and all Triticales were susceptible. Two barley cultivars Morocco, and Marocaine 079 were resistant and two others moderately resistant. Avena sterilis and A. strigosa were resistant and fifteen cultivars of A. sativa were moderately resistant. Rye cv. South . Australian, posseses a high degree of resistance in contrast to European ryes. The systemic nematicides "Temik" and "Lannate", and the fumigant nematicides ethylene dibromide and dibromochloropropane, were tested for control of H. avenge in a field experiment with Wheat at Sea Lake in the 1968-69 season. All chemical treatments reduced white cyst production, and four of the treatments increased grain yield, and reduced nematode carryover. "Temik" (11 kg/ha broadcast), gave the best nematode control and more than trebled grain yield. "Lannate" (13'kg/ha broadcast) was almost as effective. Dibromochloropropane was an effective nematicide, but was phytotoxic at 56 1/ha. The systemic nematicides "Temik", "Lannate", "Nemafos", "Vydate", "Nemac ur P", and the contact nematicide "Mocap" were tested for control of H. avenge in field experiments with wheat; at Greenland Dam in the Wimmera (1969-70), and at Sea Lake in the Mallee (1969-70 to 1971-72). In one series of experiments all the nematicides were compared on a broadcast basis. All chemical treatments reduced white cyst production and nematode carryover. Plants from plots treated with "Temik" (9 kg/ha) were always cyst-free. "Mocap" when used at the same rate was severely phytotoxic. Grain from plots treated with "Temik" and "Lannate" at the higher rate (9 kg/ha) were analysed for the presence of chemical residues. No "Lannate" residues were detected, and "Temik" residues were less than 0.1 ppm. In a second series of experiments, a comparison was made of methods and rates of application of "Temik" and "Lannate". All broadcast nematicide applications, except those at Sea Lake in 1969-70, reduced white cyst production and nematode carryover. All nematicide applications with superphosphate in the drill row, except for "Lannate" 0.3 kg/ha at Sea Lake in 1971-72, also reduced white cyst production and nematode carryover. Significant grain yield increases were obtained in each experiment. "Temik" (9 kg/ha broadcast, and 2.2 kg/ha in the drill row) consistently gave the best control of H. avenge. Plants from plots receiving these treatments were always cyst-free. In all experiments "Lannate" dusted wheat seed provided little, if any, control of H. avenge. When used at comparable rates of application, "Temik" was a more effective nematicide than "Lannate".
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    Studies on the ecology and control of some important plant parasitic nematodes in Victoria
    Brown, R. H (1940-) ( 1986)
    Since 1965 I have been employed as a nematologist by the Victorian Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, based at the Plant Research Institute, Burnley. My major responsibilities have included: (1) From 1965-1975, funded exclusively by the Wheat Industry, to conduct research on the biology and ecology of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Woll.), and to advise on methods for controlling the disease it causes in wheat and other cereals. (2) From 1975, in addition to research on H. avenae, to conduct research on nematode diseases of other agricultural and horticultural crops in Victoria. My research has always been directed at achieving methods of control which are both practical, and economic to apply. Prior to 1965, cereal cyst nematode was recognised as a major cause of disease in cereals in the southern wheatbelt of Australia; its distribution was known to be related to well structured soils; knowledge of its biology and ecology under Australian conditions was limited; and, crop rotation was the only recommended method of control. There were no sources of resistance suitable for use in breeding programs; the existence of pathotypes was unknown; and, the extent and magnitude of yield losses had not been determined. My research has culminated in the adoption by cereal growers, of several new control strategies, and the results have lead to the establishment of a new pesticide market (valued at millions of dollars per year), and economic benefits from the use of nematicides are already being obtained by rural communities in Victoria and South Australia. The results of this, and other research on various aspects of the biology and control of nematodes causing disease in grapevines, citrus, pastures, vegetable crops, ornamentals, etc. are presented in the papers which follow.