Agriculture and Food Systems - Theses

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    Growth and digestibility in finishing pigs fed various levels of raw mung beans (Phaseolus aureus [Roxb.] var. Berkin)
    Wiryawan, I Ketut Gede ( 1991)
    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate raw mung beans (Phaseolus aureus [Roxb] var. Berkin) as a source of protein and energy for finishing pigs. In the first experiment, 6 cross-bred (Landrace X Large White) boars of 53 kg liveweight were used to determine the digestible energy (DE) content of ground mung beans by substitution where 30% ground mung beans were included in a basal (wheat) diet at the expense of wheat. The DE content of mung beans was 16 � 0.9 MJ/kg DM. In the second experiment, 24 boars of 58 - 65 kg liveweight were allocated to 6 groups of four and individually fed diets containing 0% (control), 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% mung beans substituting for the same amount of soybean meal. All diets contained 14.5 MJ DE/kg and an estimated 0.65 g lysine/MJ DE.. Daily feed allowance was restricted to approximately 35 MJ DE. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between treatments in average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), backfat (P2) or relative weights of pancreas, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. The ADG and FCR were 0.96 � 0.02 kg and 2.60 � 0.05 units of feed/units of gain respectively, whilst P2 was 15.9 � 0.27 mm. The weight of the pancreas, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine and large intestine relative to body weight were 0.15 � 0.01; 2.07 � 0.03; 0.39 � 0.01; 0.61 � 0.01; 1.96 � 0.03 and 1.41 � 0.03 per cent respectively. Organic matter (OM) and ether extract (EE) digestibilities were not affected by the levels of mung beans, but levels beyond 20% significantly (P< 0.05) decreased apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and increased digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Under the condition of this study, this variety of mung beans can be incorporated in finisher diets up to 30% without negative effects on growth performance.
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    The influence of nutritional factors in the development of postweaning diarrhoea in early weaned pigs
    Chang, Hon Sen ( 1984)
    1. The study concerned the significance of change of diet and feeding method on the clinical, pathological and growth responses of 3- to 4-week-old pigs when subjected either to challenge with an enterotoxigenic serotype of Escherichia coli or exposed to 'natural' infection with E.coli. It involved experiments with both hysterotomy-derived specific pathogen-free (SPF) piglets and conventionally reared animals. The dietary treatments involved comparisons between (i) wet versus dry feeding and (ii) skim milk versus soyabean (SB) meal as the major dietary protein source. 2. Under closely controlled SPF conditions, thirty-five 28-day-old piglets were used in five experiments. In the first four experiments, two groups were changed from a liquid cow's milk diet to a milk-based diet (termed the 'basal' diet), given either in wet or dry form. Within each group, half of the animals were orally challenged with enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) bearing the K88 antigen and the remainder, serving as controls, were challenged with a non-pathogenic K12 E.coli strain. ETEC-infected piglets fed the dry, basal diet developed severe diarrhoea, depression and dehydration and at necropsy exhibited severe lesions in the small intestine associated with extensive bacterial adherence and marked reduction in intestinal lactase activity. Infected piglets fed the basal diet as a gruel had only mild diarrhoea, accompanied by limited bacterial adherence and minor mucosal and physiological changes. Control piglets, fed either dry or wet, remained clinically healthy and the morphology of the intestinal mucosa was normal. In the fifth experiment, two groups were changed from the liquid cow's milk diet to either a dry-fed basal diet or a dry-fed SB-based diet; each group consisted of both infected and control animals. Control piglets on both diets remained clinically normal with only minor mucosal changes; but the intestinal lactase activity of those fed the SB diet was depressed. Infected piglets fed the SB diet developed mild diarrhoea, depression and dehydration. Infected piglets fed the basal diet had no diarrhoea but were depressed. Bacterial colonization, mucosal and physiological changes were relatively more severe in the SB-fed animals than in those fed the basal diet. 3. Under conventional conditions, a total 0f one hundred and seventy-six piglets, from the Mt Derrimut herd, were used in three experiments. In each of these experiments, pigs were allocated among four dietary treatments: dry, basal; wet, basal; dry, SB; and wet, SB. In Expt 1, a total of twenty-four pigs were orally inoculated with K88 ETEC following their transfer at weaning to non-specialized pen accommodation (at the Attwood Institute for Veterinary Research). In Expts 2 and 3, (conducted at the Mt Derrimut Pig Centre), ninety-six and fifty-six pigs respectively were moved at weaning into specialized weaner accommodation that was routinely used for early weaning on a batch basis. No inoculations with ETEC were performed in these two experiments. In Expt 1, all pigs remained clinically normal except for one pig fed the SB diet dry. Post-mortem studies conducted on four selected pigs from each treatment group revealed very limited colonization by ETEC but without marked changes in gut morphology (although K88 ETEC were present in faecal materials). In Expts 2 and 3, natural infection with ETEC and manifestation of PWD (postweaning diarrhoea) occurred. As compared with the SB diet, the basal diet particularly when fed wet, resulted in a less severe diarrhoea. Morphological and physiological changes in the small intestine were less pronounced and bacterial adherence was less extensive. Whether the SB diet was fed wet or dry made little difference in these respects. In the first 14 days post-weaning pigs fed the basal diet, especially when this was fed wet, made faster and more efficient weight gains than those given the SB diet. The degree of infection was more widespread and severe in Expt 3 than in Expt 2. In Expt 3, the superiority of the milk-based diet compared to the SB diet was relatively greater during the first 14 days post-weaning. 4. The results indicated that both the type of diet and the form in which the diet was fed, significantly influenced the extent of colonization of the gut by ETEC, the severity of PWD and growth performance. The effects of feeding method were more apparent in the SPF piglets than in the conventional piglets. This was attributed to the greater influence of uncontrolled variables in the latter situation. 5. The greater variability of performance under the conventional rearing conditions and the marked difference in response to ETEC in Expt 1 compared with that in Expts 2 and 3 suggest that in addition to the dietary factors examined, other factors, such as the immune status of the animal, the level of 'background' pathogenic challenge and the physical environment were implicated in the pathogenesis of PWD.