Medicine (Northwest Academic Centre) - Research Publications

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    Getting RID of the blues: Formulating a Risk Index for Depression (RID) using structural equation modeling
    Dipnall, JF ; Pasco, JA ; Berk, M ; Williams, LJ ; Dodd, S ; Jacka, FN ; Meyer, D (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2017-11-01)
    OBJECTIVE: While risk factors for depression are increasingly known, there is no widely utilised depression risk index. Our objective was to develop a method for a flexible, modular, Risk Index for Depression using structural equation models of key determinants identified from previous published research that blended machine-learning with traditional statistical techniques. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009-2010, N = 5546) were utilised. Data were split 50:50 into training:validation datasets. Generalised structural equation models, using logistic regression, were developed with a binary outcome depression measure (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ⩾ 10) and previously identified determinants of depression: demographics, lifestyle-environs, diet, biomarkers and somatic symptoms. Indicative goodness-of-fit statistics and Areas Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curves were calculated and probit regression checked model consistency. RESULTS: The generalised structural equation model was built from a systematic process. Relative importance of the depression determinants were diet (odds ratio: 4.09; 95% confidence interval: [2.01, 8.35]), lifestyle-environs (odds ratio: 2.15; 95% CI: [1.57, 2.94]), somatic symptoms (odds ratio: 2.10; 95% CI: [1.58, 2.80]), demographics (odds ratio:1.46; 95% CI: [0.72, 2.95]) and biomarkers (odds ratio:1.39; 95% CI: [1.00, 1.93]). The relationships between demographics and lifestyle-environs and depression indicated a potential indirect path via somatic symptoms and biomarkers. The path from diet was direct to depression. The Areas under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curves were good (logistic:training = 0.850, validation = 0.813; probit:training = 0.849, validation = 0.809). CONCLUSION: The novel Risk Index for Depression modular methodology developed has the flexibility to add/remove direct/indirect risk determinants paths to depression using a structural equation model on datasets that take account of a wide range of known risks. Risk Index for Depression shows promise for future clinical use by providing indications of main determinant(s) associated with a patient's predisposition to depression and has the ability to be translated for the development of risk indices for other affective disorders.
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    Socioeconomic status and quality of life in population-based Australian men: data from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study
    Brennan, SL ; Williams, LJ ; Berk, M ; Pasco, JA (WILEY, 2013-06-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and reported perceptions of quality of life (QOL) in a cross-sectional population-based analysis of a representative sample of Australian men. METHODS: In 917 randomly recruited men aged 24-92 years, we measured QoL in the domains of physical health, psychological health, environment and social relationships, using the Australian World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL-BREF). Residential addresses were cross-referenced with Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 census data to ascertain SES. Participants were categorised into lower, mid, or upper SES based on the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Advantage (IRSAD), the Index of Economic Resources (IER), and the Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). Lifestyle and health information was self-reported. RESULTS: Males of lower SES reported poorer satisfaction with physical health (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9, p=0.02), psychological health (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.3-0.7, p<0.001) and environment (OR=0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.7, p<0.001), although not social relationships (p=0.59). The poorest QOL for each domain was observed in the lower and upper SES groups, representing an inverse U-shaped pattern of association; however, statistical significance was only observed for psychological health (OR=0.5, 95%CI 0.4-0.7, p<0.001). These relationships were similar for IEO and IER. CONCLUSIONS: Men from lower and upper SES groups have lower QOL compared to their counterparts in the mid SES group.
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    Statin and Aspirin Use and the Risk of Mood Disorders among Men
    Williams, LJ ; Pasco, JA ; Mohebbi, M ; Jacka, FN ; Stuart, AL ; Venugopal, K ; O'Neil, A ; Berk, M (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2016-06-01)
    BACKGROUND: There is a growing understanding that depression is associated with systemic inflammation. Statins and aspirin have anti-inflammatory properties. Given these agents have been shown to reduce the risk of a number of diseases characterized by inflammation, we aimed to determine whether a similar relationship exists for mood disorders (MD). METHODS: This study examined data collected from 961 men (24-98 years) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. MD were identified using a semistructured clinical interview (SCID-I/NP). Anthropometry was measured and information on medication use and lifestyle factors was obtained via questionnaire. Two study designs were utilized: a nested case-control and a retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: In the nested case-control study, exposure to statin and aspirin was documented for 9 of 142 (6.3%) cases and 234 of 795 (29.4%) controls (P < .001); after adjustment for age, exposure to these anti-inflammatory agents was associated with reduced likelihood of MD (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.1-0.5). No effect modifiers or other confounders were identified. In the retrospective cohort study of 836 men, among the 210 exposed to statins or aspirin, 6 (2.9%) developed de novo MD during 1000 person-years of observation, whereas among 626 nonexposed, 34 (5.4%) developed de novo MD during 3071 person-years of observation. The hazard ratio for de novo MD associated with exposure to anti-inflammatory agents was 0.55 (95%CI 0.23-1.32). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence consistent with the hypothesis that statin and aspirin use is associated with a reduced risk of MD.
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    Muscle strength and areal bone mineral density at the hip in women: a cross-sectional study
    Pasco, JA ; Holloway, KL ; Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Moloney, DJ ; Kotowicz, MA (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2015-05-24)
    BACKGROUND: Muscle strengthening exercises are promoted for building and maintaining a healthy skeleton. We aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in women aged 26-97 years. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilises data from 863 women assessed for the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Measures of hip flexor and abductor strength were made using a hand-held dynamometer (Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester). The maximal measure from three trials on each leg was used for analyses. BMD was measured at the hip using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Lunar DPX-L). Total lean mass, body fat mass and appendicular lean mass were determined from whole body DXA scans. Linear regression techniques were used with muscle strength as the independent variable and BMD as the dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age and indices of body composition. RESULTS: Measures of age-adjusted hip flexor strength and hip abductor strength were positively associated with total hip BMD. For each standard deviation (SD) increase in hip flexor strength, the increase in mean total hip BMD (SD) was 10.4 % (p = 0.009). A similar pattern was observed for hip abductor strength, with an increase in mean total hip BMD of 22.8 % (p = 0.025). All associations between hip muscle strength and total hip BMD were independent of height, but were nullified after adjusting for appendicular lean mass or total lean mass. CONCLUSIONS: There was a positive association observed between muscle strength and BMD at the hip. However, this association was explained by measures of lean mass.
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    Associations between socioeconomic status and primary total knee joint replacements performed for osteoarthritis across Australia 2003-10: data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry
    Brennan, SL ; Lane, SE ; Lorimer, M ; Buchbinder, R ; Wluka, A ; Page, RS ; Osborne, RH ; Pasco, JA ; Sanders, KM ; Cashman, K ; Ebeling, PR ; Graves, SE (BMC, 2014-10-28)
    BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the social distribution of total knee joint replacement (TKR) uptake in Australia. We examine associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and TKR performed for diagnosed osteoarthritis 2003-10 for all Australian males and females aged ≥ 30 yr. METHODS: Data of primary TKR (n=213,018, 57.4% female) were ascertained from a comprehensive national joint replacement registry. Residential addresses were matched to Australian Census data to identify area-level social disadvantage, and categorised into deciles. Estimated TKR rates were calculated. Poisson regression was used to model the relative risk (RR) of age-adjusted TKR per 1,000py, stratified by sex and SES. RESULTS: A negative relationship was observed between TKR rates and SES deciles. Females had a greater rate of TKR than males. Surgery utilisation was greatest for all adults aged 70-79 yr. In that age group differences in estimated TKR per 1,000py between deciles were greater for 2010 than 2003 (females: 2010 RR 4.32 and 2003 RR 3.67; males: 2010 RR 2.04 and 2003 RR 1.78). CONCLUSIONS: Identifying factors associated with TKR utilisation and SES may enhance resource planning and promote surgery utilisation for end-stage osteoarthritis.
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    Psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls among women: an observational study
    Williams, LJ ; Pasco, JA ; Stuart, AL ; Jacka, FN ; Brennan, SL ; Dobbins, AG ; Honkanen, R ; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H ; Rauma, PH ; Berk, M (BMC, 2015-04-08)
    BACKGROUND: Psychotropic agents known to cause sedation are associated with an increased risk of falls, but the role of psychiatric illness as an independent risk factor for falls is not clear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls risk. METHODS: This study examined data collected from 1062 women aged 20-93 yr (median 50 yr) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, a large, ongoing, population-based study. Depressive and anxiety disorders for the preceding 12-month period were ascertained by clinical interview. Current medication use and falls history were self-reported. Participants were classified as fallers if they had fallen to the ground at least twice during the same 12-month period. Anthropometry, demographic, medical and lifestyle factors were determined. Logistic regression was used to test the associations, after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Fifty-six women (5.3%) were classified as fallers. Those meeting criteria for depression within the past 12 months had a 2.4-fold increased odds of falling (unadjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5). Adjustment for age and mobility strengthened the relationship (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.2) between depression and falling, with results remaining unchanged following further adjustment for psychotropic medication use (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6). In contrast, past (prior to 12-month) depression were not associated with falls. No association was observed between anxiety and falls risk. Falling was associated with psychotropic medication use (unadjusted OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.2), as well as antidepressant (unadjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8) and benzodiazepine use (unadjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.3); associations remained unchanged following adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: The likelihood of falls was increased among those with depression within the past 12 months, independent of psychotropic medication use and other recognised confounders, suggesting an independent effect of depression on falls risk. Psychotropic drug use was also confirmed as an independent risk factor for falls, but anxiety disorders were not. Further research into the underlying mechanisms is warranted.
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    The Association Between Obesity and Low Back Pain and Disability Is Affected by Mood Disorders A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study of Men
    Chou, L ; Brady, SRE ; Urquhart, DM ; Teichtahl, AJ ; Cicuttini, FM ; Pasco, JA ; Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Wluka, A (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2016-04-01)
    Low back pain (LBP) and obesity are major public health problems; however, the relationship between body composition and low back pain in men is unknown. This study aims to examine the association between body composition and LBP and disability in a population-based sample of men, as well as the factors that may affect this relationship. Nine hundred seventy-eight male participants from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study were invited to participate in a follow-up study in 2006. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics and health status. Low back pain was determined using the validated Chronic Back Pain Grade Questionnaire and the presence of an emotional disorder was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Of the 820 respondents (84% response rate), 124 (15%) had high-intensity low back pain and/or disability (back pain). Low back pain was associated with higher body mass index (28.7 ± 0.4 vs 27.3 ± 0.2 kg/m2, P = 0.02) and waist-hip ratio (0.97 ± 0.006 vs 0.96 ± 0.006, P = 0.04), with increased tendency toward having a higher fat mass index (8.0 vs 7.6 kg/m2, P = 0.08), but not fat-free mass index (P = 0.68). The associations between back pain and measures of obesity were stronger in those with an emotional disorder, particularly for waist-hip ratio (P = 0.05 for interaction) and fat mass index (P = 0.06 for interaction).In a population-based sample of men, high-intensity LBP and/or disability were associated with increased levels of obesity, particularly in those with an emotional disorder. This provides evidence to support a biopsychosocial interaction between emotional disorders and obesity with low back pain.
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    Excessive daytime sleepiness and falls among older men and women: cross-sectional examination of a population-based sample
    Hayley, AC ; Williams, LJ ; Kennedy, GA ; Holloway, KL ; Berk, M ; Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Pasco, JA (BMC, 2015-07-05)
    BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been associated with an increased risk for falls among clinical samples of older adults. However, there is little detailed information among population-representative samples. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between EDS and falls among a cohort of population-based older adults. METHODS: This study assessed 367 women aged 60-93 years (median 72, interquartile range 65-79) and 451 men aged 60-92 years (median 73, interquartile range 66-80) who participated in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study between the years 2001 and 2008. Falls during the prior year were documented via self-report, and for men, falls risk score was obtained using an Elderly Fall Screening Test (EFST). Sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and scores of  ≥ 10 indicated EDS. Differences among those with and without EDS in regard to falls were tested using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among women, 50 (13.6%) individuals reported EDS. Women with EDS were more likely to report a fall, and were more likely to report the fall occurring outside. EDS was similarly associated with an increased risk of a fall following adjustment for use of a walking aid, cases of nocturia and antidepressant medication use (adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.24-5.21). Multivariate modelling revealed antidepressant use (current) as an effect modifier (p < .001 for the interaction term). After stratifying the data by antidepressant medication use, the association between EDS and falls was sustained following adjustment for nocturia among antidepressant non-users (adjusted OR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.31-5.30). Among men, 72 (16.0%) individuals reported EDS. No differences were detected for men with and without EDS in regard to reported falls, and a trend towards significance was noted between EDS and a high falls risk as assessed by the EFST (p = 0.06), however, age explained this relationship (age adjusted OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.10). CONCLUSIONS: For women, EDS is independently associated with at least one fall during the previous year, and this is more likely to occur whilst located outside. Amelioration of EDS may assist in improving functional outcomes among these individuals by reducing the risk for falls.
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    Depression following fracture in women: a study of age-matched cohorts
    Williams, LJ ; Berk, M ; Henry, MJ ; Stuart, AL ; Brennan, SL ; Jacka, FN ; Pasco, JA (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2014-01-01)
    OBJECTIVES: High levels of disability, functional impairment and mortality are independently associated with fracture and depression, however the relationship between fracture and depression is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fracture is associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of women. DESIGN: A study of age-matched fracture versus non-fracture cohorts of women. SETTING: Barwon Statistical Division, southeastern Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Two samples of women aged ≥35 years were drawn from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). The fracture cohort included women with incident fracture identified from radiology reports and the non-fracture cohort were randomly selected from the electoral roll during 1994-1996. OUTCOME MEASURE: Symptoms of depression for women with and without fracture during the 12-month period 2000-2001 were identified by self-report questionnaire based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. RESULTS: A total of 296 women with fracture (12 hip, 48 vertebral, 91 wrist/forearm, 17 upper arm, 7 pelvis, 11 rib, 62 lower leg and 48 other fractures) and 590 women without fracture were included. Associations between fracture and depression differed between younger (≤65 years) and older (>65 years) women. Age and weight-adjusted odds ratio for depression following fracture among younger women was 0.62 (0.35 to 1.11, p=0.12) and 3.33 (1.24 to 8.98, p=0.02) for older women. Further adjustment for lifestyle factors did not affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that differences in mood status exist between older and younger women following fracture and that fracture is associated with increased depression in older women. Assessment of mood status in both the short and long term following fracture in the elderly seems justified, with early detection and treatment likely to result in improved outcomes.
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    Small area-level socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality within 10 years in a population-based cohort of women: Data from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study.
    Brennan-Olsen, SL ; Williams, LJ ; Holloway, KL ; Hosking, SM ; Stuart, AL ; Dobbins, AG ; Pasco, JA (Elsevier BV, 2015)
    BACKGROUND: The social gradient of health and mortality is well-documented. However, data are scarce regarding whether differences in mortality are observed across socio-economic status (SES) measured at the small area-level. We investigated associations between area-level SES and all-cause mortality in Australian women aged ≥ 20 years. METHODS: We examined SES, obesity, hypertension, lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality within 10 years post-baseline (1994), for 1494 randomly-selected women. Participants' residential addresses were matched to Australian Bureau of Statistics Census data to identify area-level SES, and deaths were ascertained from the Australian National Deaths Index. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, and subsequent adjustments made for measures of weight status and lifestyle behaviors. RESULTS: We observed 243 (16.3%) deaths within 10 years post-baseline. Females in SES quintiles 2-4 (less disadvantaged) had lower odds of mortality (0.49-0.59) compared to SES quintile 1 (most disadvantaged) under the best model, after adjusting for age, smoking status and low mobility. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the lowest SES quintile (most disadvantaged), females in quintiles 2 to 5 (less disadvantaged) had significantly lower odds ratio of all-cause mortality within 10 years. Associations between extreme social disadvantage and mortality warrant further attention from research, public health and policy arenas.