Medicine (Northwest Academic Centre) - Research Publications

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    Prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention in an Australian primary health care setting: Greater green triangle (GGT) diabetes prevention project
    Laatikainen, T ; Dunbar, JA ; Chapman, A ; Kilkkinen, A ; Vartiainen, E ; Heistaro, S ; Philpot, B ; Absetz, P ; Bunker, S ; O'Neil, A ; Reddy, P ; Best, JD ; Janus, ED (BMC, 2007-09-19)
    BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials demonstrate a 60% reduction in type 2 diabetes incidence through lifestyle modification programmes. The aim of this study is to determine whether such programmes are feasible in primary health care. METHODS: An intervention study including 237 individuals 40-75 years of age with moderate or high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A structured group programme with six 90 minute sessions delivered during an eight month period by trained nurses in Australian primary health care in 2004-2006. Main outcome measures taken at baseline, three, and 12 months included weight, height, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose and lipids, plasma glucose two hours after oral glucose challenge, blood pressure, measures of psychological distress and general health outcomes. To test differences between baseline and follow-up, paired t-tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed. RESULTS: At twelve months participants' mean weight reduced by 2.52 kg (95% confidence interval 1.85 to 3.19) and waist circumference by 4.17 cm (3.48 to 4.87). Mean fasting glucose reduced by 0.14 mmol/l (0.07 to 0.20), plasma glucose two hours after oral glucose challenge by 0.58 mmol/l (0.36 to 0.79), total cholesterol by 0.29 mmol/l (0.18 to 0.40), low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/l (0.16 to 0.34), triglycerides by 0.15 mmol/l (0.05 to 0.24) and diastolic blood pressure by 2.14 mmHg (0.94 to 3.33). Significant improvements were also found in most psychological measures. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that a type 2 diabetes prevention programme using lifestyle intervention is feasible in primary health care settings, with reductions in risk factors approaching those observed in clinical trials.
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    Inhibition of Protein Farnesylation Arrests Adipogenesis and Affects PPAR gamma Expression and Activation in Differentiating Mesenchymal Stem Cells
    Rivas, D ; Akter, R ; Duque, G (HINDAWI LTD, 2007-01-01)
    Protein farnesylation is required for the activation of multiple proteins involved in cell differentiation and function. In white adipose tissue protein, farnesylation has shown to be essential for the successful differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. We hypothesize that protein farnesylation is required for PPARgamma2 expression and activation, and therefore for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes. MSCs were plated and induced to differentiate into adipocytes for three weeks. Differentiating cells were treated with either an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) or vehicle alone. The effect of inhibition of farnesylation in differentiating adipocytes was determined by oil red O staining. Cell survival was quantified using MTS Formazan. Additionally, nuclear extracts were obtained and prelamin A, chaperon protein HDJ-2, PPARgamma, and SREBP-1 were determined by western blot. Finally, DNA binding PPARgamma activity was determined using an ELISA-based PPARgamma activation quantification method. Treatment with an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) arrests adipogenesis without affecting cell survival. This effect was concomitant with lower levels of PPARgamma expression and activity. Finally, accumulation of prelamin A induced an increased proportion of mature SREBP-1 which is known to affect PPARgamma activity. In summary, inhibition of protein farnesylation arrests the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and affects PPARgamma expression and activity.
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    Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)
    Ackerman, I (AUSTRALIAN PHYSIOTHERAPY ASSOC, 2009-01-01)
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    Gait disorders are associated with non-cardiovascular falls in elderly people: a preliminary study.
    Montero-Odasso, M ; Schapira, M ; Duque, G ; Soriano, ER ; Kaplan, R ; Camera, LA (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2005-12-01)
    BACKGROUND: The association between unexplained falls and cardiovascular causes is increasingly recognized. Neurally mediated cardiovascular disorders and hypotensive syndromes are found in almost 20 percent of the patients with unexplained falls. However, the approach to these patients remains unclear. Gait assessment might be an interesting approach to these patients as clinical observations suggests that those with cardiovascular or hypotensive causes may not manifest obvious gait alterations. Our primary objective is to analyze the association between gait disorders and a non-cardiovascular cause of falls in patients with unexplained falls. A second objective is to test the sensitivity and specificity of a gait assessment approach for detecting non-cardiovascular causes when compared with intrinsic-extrinsic classification. METHODS: Cross-sectional study performed in a falls clinic at a university hospital in 41 ambulatory elderly participants with unexplained falls. Neurally mediated cardiovascular conditions, neurological diseases, gait and balance problems were assessed. Gait disorder was defined as a gait velocity < 0.8 m/s or Tinetti Gait Score < 9. An attributable etiology of the fall was determined in each participant. Comparisons between the gait assessment approach and the attributable etiology regarding a neurally mediated cardiovascular cause were performed. Fisher exact test was used to test the association hypothesis. Sensitivity and specificity of gait assessment approach and intrinsic-extrinsic classification to detect a non-cardiovascular mediated fall was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI95%). RESULTS: A cardiovascular etiology (orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, vasovagal syndrome and carotid sinus hypersensitivity) was identified in 14% of participants (6/41). Of 35 patients with a gait disorder, 34 had a non-cardiovascular etiology of fall; whereas in 5 out of 6 patients without a gait disorder, a cardiovascular diagnosis was identified (p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the presence of gait disorder for identifying a non-cardiovascular mediated cause was 97.1% (CI95% = 85-99) and 83% (CI95% = 36-99), respectively. CONCLUSION: In community dwelling older persons with unexplained falls, gait disorders were associated with non-cardiovascular diagnosis of falls. Gait assessment was a useful approach for the detection of a non-cardiovascular mediated cause of falls, providing additional value to this assessment.
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    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fracture risk in elderly women
    Pasco, JA ; Kotowicz, MA ; Henry, MJ ; Nicholson, GC ; Spilsbury, HJ ; Box, JD ; Schneider, HG (AMER MEDICAL ASSOC, 2006-09-20)
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    Seasonal periodicity of serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone, bone resorption and fractures: the Geelong Osteoprosis Study
    PASCO, JULIE ; ROGERS, MARGARET ; KOTOWICZ, MARK ; SANDERS, KERRIE ; SEEMAN, EGO ; PASCO, JOHN ; Schneider, Hans ; NICHOLSON, GEOFFREY ( 2004)
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    Anxiolytic effects of rapid amygdala kindling, and the influence of early life experience in rats
    Jones, NC ; Kumar, G ; O'Brien, TJ ; Morris, MJ ; Rees, SM ; Salzberg, MR (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2009-10-12)
    The incidence of psychiatric disturbances is elevated in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Early life stressful events are believed to have a major impact on mental health later in life, and increasing evidence suggests that such stresses may also promote a vulnerability to TLE. This study investigated whether subjecting rats to early life stress exacerbated mood and cognitive disturbances associated with the development of epilepsy. On postnatal days 2-14, rat pups were separated from their dams for either 180 min/day (handling and maternal separation--HMS180, modelling early life stress) or 15 min/day (control handling and maternal separation--HMS15). At 7 weeks, rats were implanted with a bipolar electrode into the left amygdala. Following recovery, one group of rats from each litter underwent rapid amygdala kindling (RAK) epileptogenesis, while another underwent sham kindling. One week following this, rats were subjected to behavioural tests assessing anxiety and cognition. HMS180-exposed rats kindled faster than HMS15 rats (p<0.0001). RAK induced a potent anxiolytic effect as evidenced by increased % time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, compared with sham kindled rats (p<0.0001). This anxiolytic effect was also observed in the open field task, as evidenced by increased time spent in the inner area (p=0.010). Neither RAK nor maternal separation had any effect on cognitive function in the Morris water maze. We conclude that maternal separation stress accelerates limbic epileptogenesis in adult rats, and that RAK induces potent anxiolytic effects that are not influenced by such early life stressful events.
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    NMDA receptor hypofunction leads to generalized and persistent aberrant gamma oscillations independent of hyperlocomotion and the state of consciousness.
    HAKAMI, TAHIR MOHAMMED HADI BROHI ; JONES, NIGEL ; Tolmacheva, Elena ; Gaudias, Julien ; Chaumont, Jospeh ; SALZBERG, MICHAEL ; O'BRIEN, TERENCE ; Pinault, Didier ( 2009)
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    Severe hepatitis and prolonged hepatitis B virus-specific CD8 T-cell response after selection of hepatitis B virus YMDD variant in an HIV/hepatitis B virus-co-infected patient
    Gouskos, T ; Wightman, F ; Chang, J ; Earnest-Silveira, L ; Sasadeusz, J ; Lewis, SR ; Torresi, J (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2004-08-20)
    We describe here a severe flare of hepatitis caused by lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus(HBV) in an HIV/HBV co-infected individual.Lamivudine-resistant HBV was detected 6 months before the development of severe hepatitis. Sequencing of the HBV genome isolated from the patients' serum did not identify compensatory mutations in the HBV polymerase that may have restored viral replication. However, a strong HBV-specific CD8 T-cell response was identified and may have resulted in the severe hepatitis.
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    Selection of hepatitis B virus polymerase mutants with enhanced replication by lamivudine treatment after liver transplantation
    Bock, CT ; Tillmann, HL ; Torresi, J ; Klempnauer, J ; Locarnini, S ; Manns, MP ; Trautwein, C (W B SAUNDERS CO, 2002-02-01)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lamivudine has become a main therapeutic option for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Although drug resistance develops, the clinical course after selection of antiviral-resistant HBV mutants seems to be benign. However, we observed a severe clinical course of hepatitis B infection in several liver transplant recipients after the emergence of lamivudine resistance. This was associated with high viral load in the blood. METHODS: In this report, we characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying drug-dependent enhanced replication of particular lamivudine-resistant HBV mutants selected in these patients, which were associated with sudden onset of liver failure. RESULTS: The clinical course was characterized by a sudden rise in serum bilirubin, prothrombin time, and transaminase. HBV sequence analysis of these patients revealed both mutations in the "a-determinant" of the envelope and the YMDD (tyrosine, methionine, aspartate, aspartate) motif (domain C) of the polymerase protein. Transfection experiments with replication competent vectors indicated that the "a-determinant" changes were not associated with resistance, whereas mutations in the YMDD motif conferred resistance to lamivudine. More importantly, combinations of mutations in the "a-determinant" and the YMDD motif in patients with a severe hepatitis were not only resistant to lamivudine treatment, but showed enhanced replication in vitro in the presence of lamivudine. This observation was confirmed in separate laboratories. CONCLUSIONS: Severe and fatal hepatitis B infection can occur during lamivudine therapy and may be associated with certain HBV mutants selected during sequential nucleoside and HBIg treatment. The lamivudine-enhanced replication shown by these mutants suggests that continuation of therapy with lamivudine could be deleterious in some patients.