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ItemThe association between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health disorders: Evidence from five waves of a national survey of CanadiansMcMartin, SE ; Jacka, FN ; Colman, I (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2013-03-01)OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the association between fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) and mental health disorders. METHOD: This study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a repeated cross-sectional study of Canadians with five waves between 2000 until 2009 (n=296,121 aged 12 years or older). FVI was assessed based on frequency of consumption. The primary outcome was a major depressive episode over the previous 12 months. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, household income, education, physical activity, chronic illness and smoking. RESULTS: In the first wave, greater FVI was significantly associated with lower odds of depression (OR: 0.85 95% CI:0.78-0.92). A combined estimate of all 5 waves demonstrated similar results (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.71-0.75). Relative to those with the lowest FVI, those with the greatest FVI also had significantly lower odds of suffering from distress (OR: 0.87 95% CI: 0.78-0.98). These results were consistent across other waves. Perceived poor mental health status and previous diagnosis of a mood disorder and anxiety disorder also demonstrated statistically significant inverse associations with FVI (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a potentially important role of a healthy diet in the prevention of depression and anxiety.
ItemDietary intake of fish and PUFA, and clinical depressive and anxiety disorders in womenJacka, FN ; Pasco, JA ; Williams, LJ ; Meyer, BJ ; Digger, R ; Berk, M (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2013-06-14)Fish and PUFA consumption are thought to play a role in mental health; however, many studies do not take into account multiple sources of PUFA. The present study analysed data from a sample of 935 randomly selected, population-based women aged 20–93 years. A validated and comprehensive dietary questionnaire ascertained the consumption of n-3 and n-6 PUFA. Another assessed fish and energy intake and provided data for a dietary quality score. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) measured psychological symptoms and a clinical interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-patient edition) assessed depressive and anxiety disorders. Median dietary intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (310 mg/d) were below suggested dietary target levels. The only PUFA related to categorical depressive and anxiety disorders was DHA. There was a non-linear relationship between DHA intake and depression; those in the second tertile of DHA intake were nearly 70% less likely to report a current depressive disorder compared to those in the first tertile. The relationship of DHA to anxiety disorders was linear; for those in the highest tertile of DHA intake, the odds for anxiety disorders were reduced by nearly 50% after adjustments, including adjustment for diet quality scores, compared to the lowest tertile. Those who ate fish less than once per week had higher GHQ-12 scores, and this relationship was particularly obvious in smokers. These are the first observational data to indicate a role for DHA in anxiety disorders, but suggest that the relationship between DHA and depressive disorders may be non-linear.