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ItemIdentifying Cell Class Specific Losses from Serially Generated Electroretinogram ComponentsNguyen, CTO ; Vingrys, AJ ; Wong, VHY ; Bui, BV (HINDAWI LTD, 2013-01-01)PURPOSE: Processing of information through the cellular layers of the retina occurs in a serial manner. In the electroretinogram (ERG), this complicates interpretation of inner retinal changes as dysfunction may arise from "upstream" neurons or may indicate a direct loss to that neural generator. We propose an approach that addresses this issue by defining ERG gain relationships. METHODS: Regression analyses between two serial ERG parameters in a control cohort of rats are used to define gain relationships. These gains are then applied to two models of retinal disease. RESULTS: The PIII(amp) to PII(amp) gain is unity whereas the PII(amp) to pSTR(amp) and PII(amp) to nSTR(amp) gains are greater than unity, indicating "amplification" (P < 0.05). Timing relationships show amplification between PIII(it) to PII(it) and compression for PII(it) to pSTR(it) and PII(it) to nSTR(it), (P < 0.05). Application of these gains to ω-3-deficiency indicates that all timing changes are downstream of photoreceptor changes, but a direct pSTR amplitude loss occurs (P < 0.05). Application to diabetes indicates widespread inner retinal dysfunction which cannot be attributed to outer retinal changes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This simple approach aids in the interpretation of inner retinal ERG changes by taking into account gain characteristics found between successive ERG components of normal animals.
ItemUsing the Electroretinogram to Understand How Intraocular Pressure Elevation Affects the Rat RetinaBui, BV ; He, Z ; Vingrys, AJ ; Nguyen, CTO ; Wong, VHY ; Fortune, B (HINDAWI LTD, 2013-01-01)Intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation is a key risk factor for glaucoma. Our understanding of the effect that IOP elevation has on the eye has been greatly enhanced by the application of the electroretinogram (ERG). In this paper, we describe how the ERG in the rodent eye is affected by changes in IOP magnitude, duration, and number of spikes. We consider how the variables of blood pressure and age can modify the effect of IOP elevation on the ERG. Finally, we contrast the effects that acute and chronic IOP elevation can have on the rodent ERG.