Optometry and Vision Sciences - Research Publications
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ItemFocal Activation of Primary Visual Cortex Following Supra-choroidal Electrical Stimulation of the Retina: Intrinsic Signal Imaging and Linear Model AnalysisCloherty, SL ; Hietanen, MA ; Suaning, GJ ; Ibbotson, MR (IEEE, 2010-01-01)UNLABELLED: We performed optical intrinsic signal imaging of cat primary visual cortex (Area 17 and 18) while delivering bipolar electrical stimulation to the retina by way of a supra-choroidal electrode array. Using a general linear model (GLM) analysis we identified statistically significant (p < 0.01) activation in a localized region of cortex following supra-threshold electrical stimulation at a single retinal locus. OUR RESULTS: (1) demonstrate that intrinsic signal imaging combined with linear model analysis provides a powerful tool for assessing cortical responses to prosthetic stimulation, and (2) confirm that supra-choroidal electrical stimulation can achieve localized activation of the cortex consistent with focal activation of the retina.
ItemEpiretinal Electrical Stimulation and the Inner Limiting Membrane in Rat RetinaCloherty, SL ; Wong, RCS ; Hadjinicolaou, AE ; Meffin, H ; Ibbotson, MR ; O'Brien, BJ (IEEE, 2012-01-01)In this paper we aim to quantify the effect of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) of the retina on the thresholds for epiretinal electrical stimulation of retinal ganglion cells by a microelectronic retinal prosthesis. A pair of bipolar stimulating electrodes was placed either above (on the epiretinal surface) or below the ILM while we made whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from retinal ganglion cells in an isolated rat retinal whole-mount preparation. Across our cell population we found no significant difference in the median threshold stimulus amplitudes when the stimulating electrodes were placed below as opposed to above the ILM (p = 0.08). However, threshold stimulus amplitudes did tend to be lower when the stimulating electrodes were placed below the ILM (30 µA vs 56 µA).
ItemVisual Perception: Saccadic Omission - Suppression or Temporal Masking?Ibbotson, MR ; Cloherty, SL (CELL PRESS, 2009-06-23)Although we don't perceive visual stimuli during saccadic eye movements, new evidence shows that our brains do process these stimuli and they can influence our subsequent visual perception.
ItemSaccadic Modulation of Neural Responses: Possible Roles in Saccadic Suppression, Enhancement, and Time CompressionIbbotson, MR ; Crowder, NA ; Cloherty, SL ; Price, NSC ; Mustari, MJ (SOC NEUROSCIENCE, 2008-10-22)Humans use saccadic eye movements to make frequent gaze changes, yet the associated full-field image motion is not perceived. The theory of saccadic suppression has been proposed to account for this phenomenon, but it is not clear whether suppression originates from a retinal signal at saccade onset or from the brain before saccade onset. Perceptually, visual sensitivity is reduced before saccades and enhanced afterward. Over the same time period, the perception of time is compressed and even inverted. We explore the origins and neural basis of these effects by recording from neurons in the dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd) of alert macaque monkeys. Neuronal responses to flashed presentations of a textured pattern presented at random times relative to saccades exhibit a stereotypical pattern of modulation. Response amplitudes are strongly suppressed for flashes presented up to 90 ms before saccades. Immediately after the suppression, there is a period of 200-450 ms in which flashes generate enhanced response amplitudes. Our results show that (1) MSTd is not directly suppressed, rather suppression is inherited from earlier visual areas; (2) early suppression of the visual system must be of extra-retinal origin; (3) postsaccadic enhancement of neural activity occurs in MSTd; and (4) the enhanced responses have reduced latencies. As a whole, these observations reveal response properties that could account for perceptual observations relating to presaccadic suppression, postsaccadic enhancement and time compression.
ItemEffects of saccades on visual processing in primate MSTdCloherty, SL ; Mustari, MJ ; Rosa, MGP ; Ibbotson, MR (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2010-12-01)In surveying their visual environment, primates, including humans make frequent rapid eye movements known as saccades. Saccades result in rapid motion of the retinal image and yet this motion is not perceived. We recorded saccade-related changes in neural activity in the dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd) of alert macaque monkeys. We show that the spontaneous activity of neurons in MSTd is modulated around the time of saccades. Some cells show considerable suppression of spontaneous activity, while most show early and significant enhancement. While this modulation of spontaneous activity is variable, the concomitant modulation of neural responses evoked by flashed visual stimuli is uniform and stereotypical - visual responses are suppressed for stimuli presented around the time of saccades and enhanced for stimuli presented afterwards. The combined modulation of spontaneous activity and evoked visual responses likely serves to reduce the detectability of peri-saccadic stimuli and promote the perceptual awareness of visual stimuli between saccades.
ItemDifferential changes in perceived contrast following contrast adaptation in humansHietanen, MA ; Cloherty, SL ; Clifford, CWG ; Ibbotson, MR (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2010-01-11)Perceived contrast is reduced after prolonged exposure to a textured pattern (contrast adaptation). The size of this effect is dependent on the relationship between the adapting contrast and the test contrast. It is generally accepted that the greatest reductions occur when the adapting contrast is much higher than the test contrast. Here this relationship was examined for a wide range of spatial frequencies. The results show that the effect of the adapt/test ratio on perceived contrast following contrast adaptation is highly spatial frequency dependent. At high spatial frequencies >1cpd perceived contrast was reduced for all adapting contrasts, which is consistent with other studies. However, at low spatial frequencies (<1cpd) the perceived contrast was actually above veridical perception when the adapting contrast was lower than the test contrast. This finding has not been previously reported and has important implications for models of contrast perception.
ItemIntrinsic physiological properties of rat retinal ganglion cells with a comparative analysisWong, RCS ; Cloherty, SL ; Ibbotson, MR ; O'Brien, BJ (AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC, 2012-10-01)Mammalian retina contains 15-20 different retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types, each of which is responsible for encoding different aspects of the visual scene. The encoding is defined by a combination of RGC synaptic inputs, the neurotransmitter systems used, and their intrinsic physiological properties. Each cell's intrinsic properties are defined by its morphology and membrane characteristics, including the complement and localization of the ion channels expressed. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the intrinsic properties of individual RGC types are conserved among mammalian species. To do so, we measured the intrinsic properties of 16 morphologically defined rat RGC types and compared these data with cat RGC types. Our data demonstrate that in the rat different morphologically defined RGC types have distinct patterns of intrinsic properties. Variation in these properties across cell types was comparable to that found for cat RGC types. When presumed morphological homologs in rat and cat retina were compared directly, some RGC types had very similar properties. The rat A2 cell exhibited patterns of intrinsic properties nearly identical to the cat alpha cell. In contrast, rat D2 cells (ON-OFF directionally selective) had a very different pattern of intrinsic properties than the cat iota cell. Our data suggest that the intrinsic properties of RGCs with similar morphology and suspected visual function may be subject to variation due to the behavioral needs of the species.