Optometry and Vision Sciences - Research Publications

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    Scaling the size of perimetric stimuli reduces variability and returns constant thresholds across the visual field
    Bedggood, P ; Prea, SM ; Kong, YXG ; Vingrys, AJ (ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC, 2020-10-01)
    The conventional stimulus for standard automated perimetry is fixed in size, giving elevated contrast thresholds and reduced test reliability in the periphery. Here, we test the hypothesis that appropriate scaling of the size of perimetric stimuli will return fixed thresholds and reduced variability across the visual field. We derived frequency-of-seeing (FOS) curves in five healthy subjects at central (3 degrees) and peripheral (27 degrees) locations with a method of constant stimuli (MOCS) using a desktop LCD display. FOS curves for a Goldmann III (GIII) stimulus were compared with those for size scaled spots. To consider clinical translation, we tested a further five healthy subjects (22-24 years) with the Melbourne Rapid Fields (MRF) tablet perimeter at several locations spanning 1 degree to 25 degrees from fixation, deriving FOS curves (MOCS) and also conducting repeated adaptive clinical thresholding to assess intra- and interobserver variability. We found that GIII contrast thresholds were significantly elevated in the periphery compared with the parafovea, with concomitant reduction of FOS slope. Using appropriately size scaled spots, threshold and slope differences between these locations were significantly reduced. FOS data collected with the tablet perimeter confirmed that size scaling confers broad equivalence of the shape of the FOS curve across the visual field. Repeated adaptive thresholding with size scaled stimuli gave relatively constant intra-observer variability across the visual field, which compares favorably with published normative data obtained with the GIII stimulus. The reduced variability will improve signal-to-noise ratio for correct classification of normal visual field test results, whereas the lower contrast thresholds yield greater dynamic range, which should improve the ability to reliably monitor moderate defects.
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    The Short-Term Compliance and Concordance to in Clinic Testing for Tablet-Based Home Monitoring in Age-Related Macular Degeneration
    Prea, SM ; Kong, GYX ; Guymer, RH ; Sharangan, P ; Baglin, EK ; Vingrys, AJ (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2022-03-01)
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the short-term compliance with regular home monitoring of macular retinal sensitivity (RS) in intermediate age-related macular degeneration (iAMD). Home-based outcomes were compared with in-clinic outcomes determined using (1) the same tablet device under supervision, and (2) the Macular Integrity Assessment (MaIA) microperimeter. DESIGN: Single-center longitudinal compliance and reliability study. METHODS: A total of 73 participants with iAMD were trained to perform macular field testing with the Melbourne Rapid Fields-macular (MRF-m) iPad application. Volunteers were asked to return 6 weekly tests from home, guided by audio instructions. We determined compliance with weekly testing and surveyed for factors that limited compliance. Test reliability (false positive, false negative) and RS were compared to in-clinic assays (MaIA). Data are given as mean ± SD or as median [quartile 1-3 range]. Group comparisons were achieved with bootstrap to define the 95% confidence limits. RESULTS: A total of 59 participants submitted 6 home examinations with a median intertest interval of 8.0 [7.0-17] days. Compliance with weekly testing (7 days ±24 hours) was 55%. The main barrier to compliance was information technology (IT) logistic reasons. Of 694 home examinations submitted, 96% were reliable (false-positive results <25%). The mean RS returned by the tablet was significantly higher (+3.2 dB, P < .05) compared to the MaIA. CONCLUSIONS: Home monitoring produces reliable results that differ from in-clinic tests because of test design. This should not affect self-monitoring once an at-home baseline is established, but these differences will affect comparisons with in-clinic outcomes. Reasonable compliance with weekly testing was achieved. Improved IT support might lead to better compliance.
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    Uptake, Persistence, and Performance of Weekly Home Monitoring of Visual Field in a Large Cohort of Patients With Glaucoma
    Prea, SM ; Kong, GYX ; Guymer, RH ; Vingrys, AJ (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-03-01)
    PURPOSE: This study examines the short-term uptake, compliance, and performance of a tablet device used for home monitoring of visual field (VF-Home) by glaucoma patients. DESIGN: Single-center, observational, longitudinal, compliance study. METHODS: Participants who were glaucoma suspects or had stable glaucoma in at least one eye were recruited during a regular clinic review. Baseline in-clinic visual field (VF) was recorded with the Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA, SITA standard) and repeated at 6 months. Participants were tasked with performing 6 VF examinations from home, at weekly intervals, using a loaned iPad tablet. Uptake was defined as returning at least 1 test from home. Reliability and global indices from VF-Home were compared to in-clinic outcomes. Data are shown as either mean ± [standard deviation] or median [quartile 1-3 range], and group comparisons were achieved with bootstrap. RESULTS: We recruited 186 eyes of 101 participants. VF-Home uptake was excellent, with 88% of participants successfully completing ≥1 home examination and 69% completing all 6 examinations. The median duration between tests was 7.0 [7.0-8.0] days. Barriers to uptake and compliance involved information technology (IT) logistical reasons, lack of motivation, or competing life demands. VF-Home gave greater fixation loss but a similar level of False Positives (FP) as the HFA. A high correlation was found for the mean defect between in-clinic and at-home outcomes (R = 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: VF-Home can return a high level of short-term compliance and results comparable to those found by in-clinic testing. IT logistical reasons and lack of motivation are barriers to uptake and compliance.
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    Gene Therapy with Endogenous Inhibitors of Angiogenesis for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Beyond Anti-VEGF Therapy
    Prea, SM ; Chan, EC ; Dusting, GJ ; Vingrys, AJ ; Bui, BV ; Liu, G-S (HINDAWI LTD, 2015-01-01)
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of substantial and irreversible vision loss amongst elderly populations in industrialized countries. The advanced neovascular (or "wet") form of the disease is responsible for severe and aggressive loss of central vision. Current treatments aim to seal off leaky blood vessels via laser therapy or to suppress vessel leakage and neovascular growth through intraocular injections of antibodies that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the long-term success of anti-VEGF therapy can be hampered by limitations such as low or variable efficacy, high frequency of administration (usually monthly), potentially serious side effects, and, most importantly, loss of efficacy with prolonged treatment. Gene transfer of endogenous antiangiogenic proteins is an alternative approach that has the potential to provide long-term suppression of neovascularization and/or excessive vascular leakage in the eye. Preclinical studies of gene transfer in a large animal model have provided impressive preliminary results with a number of transgenes. In addition, a clinical trial in patients suffering from advanced neovascular AMD has provided proof-of-concept for successful gene transfer. In this mini review, we summarize current theories pertaining to the application of gene therapy for neovascular AMD and the potential benefits when used in conjunction with endogenous antiangiogenic proteins.