Optometry and Vision Sciences - Research Publications
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ItemNo Preview AvailableThe Effect of Daily Transient+4 D Positive Lens Wear on the Inhibition of Myopia in the Tree ShrewMcBrien, NA ; Arumugam, B ; Metlapally, S (ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC, 2012-03-01)PURPOSE: Negative-lens-induced defocus causes accelerated ocular elongation and myopia, whereas positive-lens-induced defocus produces reduced ocular elongation and hyperopia. Short durations of positive lens wear result in markedly stronger temporal effects than do short periods of negative lens wear in the chick model of refractive development. In mammalian and nonhuman primate models, there have been equivocal results in inhibiting myopia by short periods of positive lens wear when compared with data from the chick model. The purpose of the present study was an evaluation of full-time -9.5 D negative lens wear interrupted by short periods of daily +4 D positive lens wear in preventing experimental myopia in the tree shrew. METHODS: One treatment group wore negative lenses (-9.5 D) binocularly for 23 hours a day (10 hours of which were spent in total darkness), interrupted by 1 hour of wearing positive lenses (+4 D) binocularly for 12 days. Another group of animals wore negative lenses (-9.5 D) binocularly for 23 hours a day, interrupted by two 30-minute periods of positive lens (+4 D) wear daily, again for 12 days. The animals were raised on a 14-hour/10-hour light-dark cycle. Animals wearing -9.5 D lenses binocularly, interrupted by 0-powered lenses for either 1 hour or two 30-minute periods daily for 12 days, acted as controls. RESULTS: Continuous wear of -9.5 D lenses binocularly induced a -10.8 D myopic shift in refraction. Full-time wear of -9.5 D lenses binocularly, interrupted by 1 hour of 0-power lens wear binocularly, caused a myopic shift of 3.6 D over 12 days, whereas wearing -9.5 D lenses, interrupted by 1 hour every day of +4.0 D lens wear binocularly, whether it was continuous or divided into two 30-minute periods, caused a myopic shift of only 0.7 D over 12 days. CONCLUSIONS: Daily intermittent +4 D positive lens wear effectively inhibits experimentally induced myopia and may prove a viable approach for preventing myopia progression in children.
ItemNo Preview AvailableMuscarinic Antagonist Control of Myopia: Evidence for M-4 and M-1 Receptor-Based Pathways in the Inhibition of Experimentally-Induced Axial Myopia in the Tree ShrewArumugam, B ; McBrien, NA (ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC, 2012-08-01)PURPOSE: The broadband muscarinic antagonist atropine is effective in stopping the progression of myopia in animals and humans. The partially selective M(1)/M(4) antagonist pirenzepine also slows progression of myopia, although not as effectively as atropine. Due to the supra maximal doses utilized in these studies, it is unclear if this antimyopia effect occurs through a receptoral-based mechanism, and if so, which receptors are involved. Studies in chicks indicate the involvement of the M(4) muscarinic receptor. The current study investigated the effect of the highly selective muscarinic antagonists Muscarinic Toxin 3 (MT3) (M(4) selective) and Muscarinic Toxin 7 (MT7) (M(1) selective) on experimental myopia in a mammalian model. METHODS: Tree shrews (n = 23) underwent daily intravitreal injections of MT3, MT7, or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline) for five days in the treated eye, combined with deprivation of vision with a translucent occluder (MD). The contralateral eye was unocccluded and underwent intravitreal injections of vehicle for the same period. Two additional groups (n = 10) underwent daily intravitreal injections of MT7 or vehicle for 10 days in the treated eye combined with negative lens (-9.5 diopter [D]) defocus (LIM). The control eye was injected with saline and wore a plano lens. RESULTS: Both MT3 and MT7 treatment reduced the development of deprivation-induced myopia (treated-control eye [T-C]; vehicle-MD; -4.3 ± 0.6 D versus MT3-MD; -0.7 ± 0.2 D and MT7-MD; -0.7 ± 0.4 D; P < 0.001). MT7 treatment was effective at inhibiting lens-induced myopia (T-C; vehicle-LIM; -4.6 ± 0.5 D versus MT7-LIM; 0.2 ± 0.2 D; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that inhibition of form-deprivation myopia by muscarinic antagonists involves both M(4) and M(1) muscarinic receptor signaling pathways in mammals.